Friday, August 19, 2016

New Scientific Study Proves that Standing Stones are Astronomy

We are happy to announce
-- as we have been writing for the last decades --
that "standing stones" are astronomy,

according to a confirming, just published "scientific study".

At New Atlas, formerly gizmag, David Szondy reports on an article published in the Journal of Archaeological Science Reports.
See New Atlas at newatlas.com/statistics-stonehenge-computer/44949/.


The full original publication referred to by Szondy can be accessed via the Copyright Clearance Center RightsLink® via https://s100.copyright.com/AppDispatchServlet?publisherName=ELS&contentID=S2352409X16301808 


At New Atlas
Szondy summarizes the results, inter alia, as follows:

"[A] team of scientists from the University of Adelaide has statistically proven that some of the oldest standing stones in Britain were deliberately constructed to align with solar and lunar movements....

[T]he analysis revealed that these alignments not only included the stones, but the surrounding landscape and horizon as well. This showed that the ancient Britons connected the Earth to the sky in designing their stone circles....
"

As above, so below.

 
Via New Atlas and then ScienceDirect.com,
-- where at the latter one can read the Abstract to the article --
we discovered that:


The Reports of the Journal of Archaeological Science are an Elsevier publication. The study appeared in Volume 9, October 2016, Pages 249–258 under the title Origins of Standing Stone Astronomy in Britain: New quantitative techniques for the study of archaeoastronomy, by Gail Higginbottom and Roger Clay.

Higginbottom is at the Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia while Clay is at the School of Archaeology & Anthropology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
The full original publication referred to by Szondy can be accessed via the Copyright Clearance Center RightsLink®.

We imagine that their study is the beginning of an avalanche of research papers over the coming years that will for the most part confirm the correctness of our work over the years in deciphering megaliths and megalithic sites as astronomy.

We urge you to read our newest discoveries about the Avebury Stones of Avebury Henge at the LexiLine Board at ProBoards under that Board title of Avebury at lexiline.proboards.com/.


Also those discoveries will be confirmed, you can be sure. The data is so good that we can say that without a doubt.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Harvard and Stanford Top the 2016 Nature Index of Academic Institutions

Harvard and Stanford universities top the 2016 Nature Index of Academic Institutions in terms of the counts of high-quality research publications in the natural sciences.

The Top 10 are: 1. Harvard 2. Stanford 3. Tokyo 4. MIT 5. Oxford 6. Cambridge 7. Berkeley 8. ETH 9. UC San Diego 10. Michigan.

Prehistoric Man Was Fascinated by OUR UNIVERSE, not Pots : Cosmic Eye Video Goes Viral

Please see the following video beginning to end, as it goes out, then back and then in, and back again.

Cosmic Eye: Video by Perth astrophysicist Danail Obreschkow goes viral

Archaeologists please note -- it is our cosmic universe, the universe in which we live that fascinated prehistoric mankind to the extreme and gave rise to modern civilization -- NOT POTS.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Andis Kaulins and the Ancient World Blog

The Ancient World Blog is written by Andis Kaulins, a joint EU and USA citizen, born in Germany in 1946. He is a J.D. (Doctor of Jurisprudence), Stanford University Law School (1971).

Kaulins (pronounced Collins) is an alumnus associate of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison, an international law firm headquartered in New York City and known as "Paul, Weiss" viz. "Paul|Weiss" in the trade.

As of 2016, all three of the ladies on the U.S. Supreme Court were former (summer) associates at Paul, Weiss.

Kaulins is the former FFA Law Lecturer in Anglo-American Law, University of Trier, Germany. He is the author of books on the history of civilization, ancient scripts and languages, as well as megalithic cultures (see the list below).

Kaulins is also co-author of the world's leading Langenscheidt Routledge German-English, English-German Dictionary of Business, Commerce and Finance, now in its 4th print edition, including modern media editions for handhelds, where Kaulins covers law, patents and intellectual property (IP), information technology (IT), Internet, telecommunications, and new media.

As a college student, Kaulins did summer work for the Nebraska State Surveyor's Office, doing land survey in the field.


Anyone who thinks we do not get "out in the field", like a good "digger", had better look at our Glacier Climbing in Svellnosbreen in Norway in 1977.

The Ancient World Blog, as its name, implies, covers the ancient world.

Why do the above-mentioned specialties serve as a strong basis for analyzing history? There are actually simple answers for that.

LAW is a discipline based on LAW, FACTS and their INTERPRETATION and people who study law learn to analyze and use EVIDENCE. No other academic discipline has courses on Evidence. The law does.


Thinking like a lawyer is called "critical thinking", a type of thinking absent in much published historical work by other mainstream disciplines.

"Critical thinking" does not mean considering one or two alternative solutions to a problem. "Critical thinking" means considering ALL the possible solutions imaginable and the reasons for them. Top "critical thinkers" do that, and they are the best lawyers, best CEOs, best political leaders, best scientists, etc.


TRANSLATION and MULTI-LANGUAGE DICTIONARY WRITING is the professional skill of CONVERTING INFORMATION, i.e. converting one form of communication into another.
 

People in the archaeological and archaeologically-related professions are trained in none of these, and their work shows glaring deficits in those areas.

LAND SURVEY is the basis for the organization of all modern civilizations. The communities of man asserted territories, and those territories had to be land(marked) in some manner. Many people in the archaeological and archaeologically-related professions have no idea about land survey or territory in the sense of Robert Ardrey's Territorial Imperative.


One can not understand the ancient world without the understanding that LAND was more important than POTS. How many people in archaeologically-related professions recognize that?

We cover modern patents in our work. In ancient days, HUMAN INVENTIVENESS and CREATIVITY were equally important for survival as also for social rank and organization.


INVENTIONS go back a long time and form an integral part of the development of the human civilization, both now and in the past.

It must be noted in this connection that there is a greatly mistaken prevailing assumption in many quarters of academia and elsewhere that "Archaeology and related fields" are the disciplines rightly responsible for reconstructing the history of mankind, whereas, in fact, something quite different is actually true, as e.g. modern  genetic research of genomics is showing us.

In an Edge conversation, The Genomic Ancient DNA Revolution: A New Way to Investigate the Past, David Reich of the Harvard Medical School is quoted as follows: "This is what ancient DNA does for us. When you look at the data, it doesn’t always just play into one person’s theory or the other; it doesn’t just play into the Indo-European steppe hypothesis or the Anatolian hypothesis. Sometimes it raises something completely new, like the Denisovan finger bone and the interbreeding of a gene flow from Denisovans into Australians and New Guineans." There are many conflicts between prevailing mainstream archaeological "theories" and genetic evidence.

Archaeologists are trained to dig things out of the ground, fine, that is their role. But over the years they have extended their alleged role far beyond their training and expertise.

For example, little in their training has prepared them to properly analyze prehistoric standing stones above the ground. Mainstream academic attempts to analyze megaliths and megalithic sites have thus far been quite ineffective.
 

We are in part remedying that problem through our publications of megalithic decipherments, which are all mostly astronomical in nature, and show the "art" of prehistoric man.

We refer here also to our forum topic titled Archaeological Research Basics from Pauketat, which we recommend to all who wish to get a more balanced look at current Archaeology in general.
 

People who think that Archaeology and related disciplines are "exact" sciences are just kidding themselves.

Post-processual archaeology in fact challenges pretty much everything that previous archaeology generations have produced as "human history", quoting the Wikipedia: "Post-processualism was heavily critical of a key tenet of processualism, namely its assertion that archaeological interpretations could, if the scientific method was applied, come to completely objective conclusions. Post-processualists also criticized previous archaeological work for overemphasizing materialist interpretations of the past and being ethically and politically irresponsible."

It is not without reason that Ian Hodder, Dunlevie Family Professor and Professor of Anthropology at Stanford University, asks on his home page "Do ‘pots’ equate with ‘people’?".
We quoted Hodder some years ago in a posting at LexiLine Journal 539. We wrote:

"Göbekli Tepe is featured at Newsweek online in an article from the March 1, 2010 issue of Newsweek magazine. At History in the Remaking: A temple complex in Turkey that predates even the pyramids is rewriting the story of human evolution, Patrick Symmes writes: "

"The new discoveries are finally beginning to reshape the slow-moving consensus of archeology. Göbekli Tepe is 'unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date,' according to Ian Hodder, director of Stanford's archeology program. Enthusing over the 'huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art' at Göbekli, Hodder -- "who has spent decades on rival Neolithic sites" -- says: 'Many people think that it changes everything…It overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong." [emphasis added]

"All our theories were wrong." Consider that virtually absolute and timely statement coming from one of the leading personages in modern Archaeology.
 

Hodder is not just "anybody" out there in archaeology spouting off his opinion. Rather, he is a LEADING archaeologist. Take a look at his Stanford University profile.

We are far more critical than Hodder about many things in the archaeological and related professions. We say:

  • There is no training in archaeology and related disciplines in the use of "probative evidence" and its proper assessment, which is properly the role of people trained in law, but not archaeology. Our cardinal case is the case of Moses and Exodus, for which read the front page of LexiLine.com.
  • There is little appreciation in archaeology and related disciplines of the importance of astronomy in prehistoric cultures, and even less astronomical knowledge is taught or available in the field.
  • The role of ancient sculpting arts in prehistory as a major means of communication is often totally ignored, as can be seen in archaeological interpretations of prehistoric cave paintings, which fail to see that the rock faces or stones BEHIND the paintings are often ALSO carved into shapes, and were so carved before ancient man started to apply "rock art paintings" on top of the carvings instead. Carving and sculpting preceded "cave" and "rock" painting, folks. How can something that simplistically obvious not be universally recognized in Archaeology. It is astounding!
  • There is little archaeological training in "art appreciation" and how to examine and interpret the art of prehistoric and ancient cultures and civilizations. Much of the ancient world is art, so that training in art is essential.

    Why, for example, did the minimalistic "relief sculpture" dominate early stone carvings?

    Because it was a darn sight easier than carving the whole stone!

    Contemporary researchers who have grown up viewing the obvious plasticity of Auguste Rodin sculptures or an Andy Warhol iconic pop art are not likely to easily recognize dimly scratched relief-type art on megalithic standing stones from 5000 years ago.

    The ancients could still track the faint spur of a hunted animal's track in the savanna or forest, and knew their stars, for terrestrial and water navigation.

    Today, we hunt down our game in the local supermarket and navigate in a labyrinth of glass, steel & concrete.

    The ancient world was a different world.
We thus have good reason to claim that much in mainstream thinking is wrong
and to assert that the Ancient World Blog, now being incorporated into the LexiLine forum at ProBoards, has some very good suggested "corrections" to mainstream thinking.

Short list of books published by Andis Kaulins:

Crossposted from the LexiLine forum at ProBoards.com.

Thursday, August 11, 2016

"Experts" are Inferior to Algorithms: That's the EMPIRICAL Evidence: Experts Like Complexity: Algorithms Prefer Simplicity : Simple Combinations of Features Are Better

When discussing any academic discipline and the "scientific" methodology it employs, it is instructive to know the following....

In Statistics vs. Judgment at DelanceyPlace.com, August 11, 2016, Richard Vague focuses on the book Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman,
summarizing an excerpted section that deals with the work of Paul Meehl.

Vague writes:
"In today's encore selection -- from Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. Statistics versus judgment. In his book Clinical vs. Statistical Prediction: A Theoretical Analysis and a Review of the Evidence, psychoanalyst Paul Meehl gave evidence that statistical models almost always yield better predictions and diagnoses than the judgment of trained professionals. In fact, experts frequently give different answers when presented with the same information within a matter of a few minutes...."

The New Lexiline Forum at ProBoards.com

The New Lexiline Forum at ProBoards.com

We are in the process of moving our LexiLine, History of Civilization Yahoo! Group (at Yahoo! Groups since the year 1999)  to our new forum at ProBoards.com, a free online board portal to our liking.

The Lexiline ProBoards forum has been started at ProBoards at the URL http://lexiline.proboards.com titled as Lexiline : Civilization : Arts : Sciences : Archaeology : Technology : Astronomy : Anthropology.


For a sample page see the following page as a guest:
Avebury Maps | Lexiline : Civilization : Arts : Sciences : Archaeology : Technology : Astronomy : Anthropology

The "public", i.e. guests, are free to view the board but only members of the Lexiline forum can post. Requests to become a member of the group must be approved by the Lexiline forum administration. Membership must be restricted to retain control over spam and flamers, who can be removed and/or banned, so please, apply for membership only if you have a serious interest in the topics discussed on the forum, i.e. the history of civilization, arts & sciences, archaeology & anthropology, technology e.g. astronomy, including archaeoastronomy, and related disciplines -- all from a prehistorical viz. historical perspective.

Future members should read the help files at ProBoards to get acquainted with the system. Looks like a lot of fun!

ProBoards gives forum members a greater opportunity for interactive participation. We intend to take a step back at this new forum from full responsibility and will be looking for additional moderators among the members. Let us know if you are interested. We see the forum as a long-term project. It all depends on how many people join and how high the interest level proves to be.

Right now we are using the free version of ProBoards. If it proves to be successful, we could move to the monthly payment scheme, which would eliminate the ads. But this remains to be seen. Enjoy!

Here is the link again.
LexiLine at ProBoards
http://lexiline.proboards.com/

Sunday, August 07, 2016

Avebury Stone #10 Front Side Black/White Tracing plus Constellations Compared with Modern Sky Map -- 5000 Years Apart in Astronomical Technology

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10  Front Side Black/White Tracing plus Constellations Compared with Modern Sky Map -- 5000 Years Apart in Astronomical Technology

This image compares the black/white tracing result for Avebury Stone #10 with the corresponding stars in a modern sky map. Both mark the same stellar region, 5000 years apart in astronomical technology. The sky map on the right is a partial clip from the superb astronomy software program Starry Night Pro http://astronomy.starrynight.com. We have moved labels around so that the image comparison is easier to view here. Click the pic to see a larger image.


The top of Avebury Stone #10 marks the Celestial Meridian. When you look at that top of the stone, you see that the ancients split Ursa Major into two halves that marked the heads of the two large figures, a man and a woman. The necks of the heads mark the Galactic Meridian. The child in their laps is marked by Leo, with Leo Minor marking either more children of the family or dolls of the large child. The man wears boots and one can see the shape of the shoe in the Milky Way with a jagged cut. The woman's dress extends to the bottom of the image, although the right lower half of the stone also might represent a sperm whale's head below the Celestial Equator, which is marked by Hydra at the middle of the intentionally sheared megalith. Also an octopus or squid is marked in the watery regions, at the lower left and a whale at the lower right below the funerary sled. The bottom of the stone marks the Galactic Equator. The center of the Stone marks the Summer Solstice. The North Galactic Pole at Coma Berenices is marked by what could be a phallic symbol.

As we interpret the figures on stone, the upper half of the stone represents the realm of the living on Earth whereas the lower half  is the realm of the deceased, marked by several figures that can be interpreted as those who have passed away, including one on a sled, which must have transported the deceased into the watery underworld. Puppis in the right corner is drawn as the similarly named Apophis (Apep), the giant serpent of the deep who was thought in early ancient times to consume the dead.

Crux, the Southern Cross, is in the left lower corner and may have served in prehistoric days, as in modern eras, as a symbol of passage.

Antlia is a modern constellation, very faintly marked here by what appears to be an animal of some kind. It was seen as a hunting boomerang by aboriginals in Oceania, a normally irrelevant connection, except for a figure we found dimly marked on the right hand side of the stone that could appear to be throwing something like a hunting boomerang could be. Interesting.

Avebury Stone #10 Front Side Color Trace Compared with Sky Map Star Correspondence

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Front Side Color Trace and Sky Map Star Comparison 5000 Years Apart in Astronomical Technology

This image compares the color tracing result for Avebury Stone #10 with the corresponding stars in a modern sky map. Both mark the same stellar region, 5000 years apart in astronomical technology. The sky map on the right is a partial clip from the superb astronomy software program Starry Night Pro http://astronomy.starrynight.com. We have moved labels around so that the image comparison is easier to view here. Click the pic to see a larger image.


The top of Avebury Stone #10 marks the Celestial Meridian. When you look at that top of the stone, you see that the ancients split Ursa Major into two halves that marked the heads of the two large figures, a man and a woman. The necks of the heads mark the Galactic Meridian. The child in their laps is marked by Leo, with Leo Minor marking either more children of the family or dolls of the large child. The man wears boots and one can see the shape of the shoe in the Milky Way with a jagged cut. The woman's dress extends to the bottom of the image, although the right lower half of the stone also might represent a sperm whale's head below the Celestial Equator, which is marked by Hydra at the middle of the intentionally sheared megalith. Also an octopus or squid is marked in the watery regions, at the lower left and a whale at the lower right below the funerary sled. The bottom of the stone marks the Galactic Equator. The center of the Stone marks the Summer Solstice. The North Galactic Pole at Coma Berenices is marked by what could be a phallic symbol.

As we interpret the figures on stone, the upper half of the stone represents the realm of the living on Earth whereas the lower half  is the realm of the deceased, marked by several figures that can be interpreted as those who have passed away, including one on a sled, which must have transported the deceased into the watery underworld. Puppis in the right corner is drawn as the similarly named Apophis (Apep), the giant serpent of the deep who was thought in early ancient times to consume the dead.

Crux, the Southern Cross, is in the left lower corner and may have served in prehistoric days, as in modern eras, as a symbol of passage.

Antlia is a modern constellation, very faintly marked here by what appears to be an animal of some kind. It was seen as a hunting boomerang by aboriginals in Oceania, a normally irrelevant connection, except for a figure we found dimly marked on the right hand side of the stone that could appear to be throwing something like a hunting boomerang could be. Interesting.

The next posting shows a black white tracing with constellations drawn into it
in a comparison with the same Starry Night Pro sky map as here.

Friday, August 05, 2016

Avebury Stone #10 Back Side - Tracing in Color Compared with a Sky Map of Corresponding Stars

Avebury Stone #10 Back Side - Tracing in Color Compared with a Sky Map of the Corresponding Stars by Andis Kaulins

This is a graphic image comparing the tracing in color of the back side of Avebury Stone #10 with an illustrated sky map of the corresponding stars and the stellar region corresponding to the tracing result for the back side of Avebury Stone #10. The positions of the stars are an underlying sky map clipped using the astronomy software program Starry Night Pro, http://astronomy.starrynight.com. Andis Kaulins, who is not affiliated with Starry Night Pro, has added texts, changed labels and inserted the explanatory thick red lines, showing the image correspondence.

Click on the image to obtain the larger original


Avebury Stone #10 Back Side - The Corresponding Stars in a Sky Map

Avebury Stone #10 Back Side - A Sky Map of the Corresponding Stars by Andis Kaulins

This is a sky map of the stars and the stellar region corresponding to the tracing result for the back side of Avebury Stone #10. The positions of the stars are an underlying sky map clipped from the astronomy software program Starry Night Pro, http://astronomy.starrynight.com. Andis Kaulins, who is not affiliated with Starry Night Pro, has added the texts, changed labels and thick red lines by way of explanation.


This posting is followed by a posting that compares the corresponding stars with the tracing in color of Avebury Stone #10 Back Side in one image.

Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Tracing in Color & Stars & Figures Identified

Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Tracing in Color & Stars & Figures Identified by Andis Kaulins

This is the tracing result for the back side of Avebury Stone #10 in color with the stars identified. A sky map with the corresponding stars marked on a sky map follows in the next posting.


As predicted, the back side of Avebury #10 (viewed henge-outwards) marks stars "above" and opposite the stars marked on the front side of Avebury Stone #10.

The back side marks the Winter Solstice point at Zeta Cygni as a small bird being rescued from the cold by an elder. The back side thus shows the stars of winter. Note that the figures portrayed, a man and a woman and a community elder with distinguished-looking headwear appear to wear winter clothing, including bundled-up type coats, a winter cap and shawl and fingerless mittens of the type once typical for cooler northern regions. That all looks quite amazing for ca. 3000 BC, but than again, what had we imagined? Cold weather required appropriate clothes, also prehistorically. Our bright colors surely make the clothing look more modern than it is.... but we are trying to emphasize that the reader must make some substantial changes in his or her head about the sophistication of the megalith makers, also astronomically.

The bottom large figure which we identify as a boat -- but it could be a sled -- is composed of many smaller figures (which we can not separately color here). Since the bottom figure could be a winter sled, we considered that the figures at the bottom in the boat or behind the sled might be rolling snow into balls for a snowman, but that is still speculative. In any case, if it is a sled, then the man and woman are presumably sitting in the sled as it were.

In any case, the stars of Cepheus and Lyra are marked at the top of the back side of Avebury Stone #10, with Cygnus below. The necks of the three upper figureheads mark the Galactic Equator.

The top of the back side of the stone, which has a whitish color different from the darker lower part of the stone, marks the bright span of the Milky Way.

The bottom of the back side of Avebury Stone #10 marks by the Ecliptic.

The left side of the stone's markings extends to the stars of Andromeda, the Great Square (of Pegasus), and Pisces, including the Circlet of Pisces. The right side extends to the stars of Aquila and Capricorn.

We have a star map of the region of the sky portrayed by Avebury Stone #10 Back Side in the next posting.

Provided that the attribution is retained, the above copyrighted image is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general. Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Tracing in Black & White Only

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Tracing by Andis Kaulins

This is the tracing result for the back side of Avebury Stone #10 in black & white only. As predicted, and as we shall see in subsequent postings, the back side of Avebury #10 (viewed henge-outwards) marks stars "above" and opposite the stars marked on the front side of Avebury Stone #10. We have added the phrase "Zeta Cygni marks the Winter Solstice as a small bird". For more, see the next posting of this trace in color and with stars identified.


Provided that the attribution is retained, the above copyrighted image is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general. Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Traced

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Traced by Andis Kaulins

This is the tracing result for the back side of Avebury Stone #10. As predicted, and as we shall see in subsequent postings, the back side of Avebury #10 (viewed henge-outwards) marks stars "above" and opposite the stars marked on the front side of Avebury Stone #10.


Provided that the attribution is retained, the above copyrighted image is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general. Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

Avebury Stone #10 Right Side Photo Tracing in Color with Corresponding Star Map and Figure Interpretation

Avebury Stone #10 Right Side Trace in Color & Corresponding Star Map by Andis Kaulins

This is the color tracing result of the photograph of the right side of Avebury Stone #10 together with the corresponding star map, with the underlying star positions clipped via the superb software astronomy program Starry Night Pro, http://astronomy.starrynight.com. Explanatory thick red lines and various label adjustments were drawn and made by Andis Kaulins, who is not affiliated with Starry Night Pro in any way. The star map below is an education regarding the astronomy of Avebury. The region of stars depicted, as predicted, is to the right of the stars on the front side of Avebury Stone #10. The stellar region portrayed is otherwise defined by major astronomical parameters, with the Celestial Meridian building the left border and the Galactic Equator marking the bottom. Click on the image to obtain the larger, original image.


The right side marks the stars extending to the Autumn Equinox and the Celestial Meridian ca. 3000 BC. The stars marked begin at the top with stars today assigned to Boötes, Corona Borealis and Coma Berenices, as well as the North Galactic Pole and the Galactic Meridian.  Marked in the middle are stars  we assign today to Serpens Caput, Virgo, Libra, and the front stars of Scorpio. Also marked in the middle are the Autumn Equinox, Ecliptic and the Celestial Equator. Marked at the bottom are the middle and back stars of Scorpio, as well as stars of Lupus, Centaurus and Crux, as well as the Ecliptic Meridian and Galactic Equator.

Consider the figures and what they represent. We see the astronomer-priest (some would write "druid") as Boötes at the top wearing a hooded pelt hat (Corona Borealis), with a Peacock-type of bird on his shoulder and a small monkey on his back, the latter marking the North Galactic Pole. Below the astronomer-priest is a male figure whose head marks a portion of the sky with few bright visible stars to which we today do not give much attention (not a constellation), and below the male figure is a female figure as Virgo, though drawn differently than we do today. Some of the drawn aspects could be seen as fertility symbols but we do not go into that here. It's a touchy subject and not necessary for our decipherment work. We do not need the distraction.

The back stars of Scorpio would appear to us to depict a seal in the water catching a fish at the tail, while Lupus is drawn to seemingly represents an osprey (sea eagle) catching the same fish at its head. We presume that this meeting point was meant to represent the cross of the ecliptic and the celestial equator at the Autumn Equinox point in the stars.

The stars of Crux here are in the lower right corner, which corresponds to the lower left corner when the stone is viewed from the front side.

Provided that the attribution is retained, the above copyrighted image is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication, and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general. Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

Avebury Stone #10 Right Side Tracing and Black & White Trace with Stars

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Right Side Trace and Stars by Andis Kaulins

This is the tracing result for the right side of Avebury Stone #10. As predicted, the right side of Avebury #10 (viewed henge-outwards) marks stars to the right of the stars marked on the front side of Avebury Stone #10.

The right side marks the stars extending to the Autumn Equinox and the Celestial Meridian ca. 3000 BC. The stars marked begin at the top with stars today assigned to Boötes, Corona Borealis and Coma Berenices, as well as the North Galactic Pole and the Galactic Meridian.  Marked in the middle are stars  we assign today to Serpens Caput, Virgo, Libra, and the front stars of Scorpio. Also marked in the middle are the Autumn Equinox, Ecliptic and the Celestial Equator. Marked at the bottom are the middle and back stars of Scorpio, as well as stars of Lupus, Centaurus and Crux, as well as the Ecliptic Meridian and Galactic Equator. Note how the major astronomical parameters define the borders of the stellar region portrayed. Make sure you view the corresponding star map in the next posting. It is an education in the astronomy of Avebury.


Provided that the attribution is retained, the above copyrighted image is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general. Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

Avebury Stone #10 Left Side Compared to the Neo-Assyrian Nubian Tribute Bearer Now in the Metropolitan Museum in New York City

Avebury Stone #10 Left Side Compared to the Neo-Assyrian Nubian Tribute Bearer Now Found in the Metropolitan Museum in New York City

The two similar motifs are separated by ca. 2000 years.

The sky represented by the so-called tribute bearer (our discovery) is shown in the second image in this posting, which is below the first one.





Below:
 Clip from The Learning Technologies (http://www.starlab.com) Heifetz Precession of the Equinoxes Historical Planisphere (1997) which is used here to show star positions and the Milky Way for the Summer Solstice point in the stars at Cancer ca. 800 B.C. as found on the statuette. That date meshes exactly with the date assigned to the Statuette by archaeology. We have added the red lines to show how they match the Statuette.



Avebury Stone #10 Left Side and Corresponding Stars

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Left Side and Corresponding Stars by Andis Kaulins

The image below compares the left side of Avebury Stone #10 with its corresponding stars, primarily the stars of Cancer, although the head and bosom of the female are marked by stars of Leo and Ursa Major. These are the stars to the left of those marked on the front side of Avebury Stone #10, with "left" as viewed from the back.

The entire "art" motif of the left side of Avebury Stone #10 is nearly the same as the so-called Neo-Assyrian Nubian Tribute Bearer, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. The near identity of the two motifs can be seen in the next posting.

The underlying star map below is clipped from the astronomy software Starry Night Pro, http://astronomy.starrynight.com, which is the standard astronomy program we use. The decipherer Andis Kaulins has added the thick colored lines by way of explanation.

Click on the image to see it in original size.



Thursday, August 04, 2016

Avebury Stone #10 Left Side Tracing and Trace in Color

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Left Side Tracing and Trace in Color by Andis Kaulins
This is the tracing result for the left side of Avebury Stone #10, also shown in color.
Everyone will trace this stone somewhat differently, but the basic substance will still remain.

Provided that the attribution on the tracing is retained, the above copyrighted image
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the
original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the
maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

Megalithic Art, Avebury and the Evidence

Everybody loves a good mystery and ancient megalithic sites contain many secrets. But who really wants the true purpose of these stones to be revealed? The solution of prehistoric riddles brings little short-term gain.

Quite the contrary, any sensible interpretation of sites such as the “Avebury Henge” may even threaten vested interests that make a living from ancient studies and related disciplines. For example, old-school Archaeology (read Imre Lakatos) is antiquated methodologically and simply outdated.

Why have mainstream approaches made only small progress in understanding prehistoric megaliths?

One reason is that research involves picture-based "megalithic art" -- an art composed of figures and markings on stones. Some figures and markings are clear. Others are unclear, so that identification raises subjectivity issues and makes interpretation problematical.

Detail-trained persons such as watchmakers, medical image or miniature art specialists – not archaeologists -- should independently trace (and check) lines, markings and figures on megalithic photographs to arrive at some common base of discussion.

Even then, if figures and markings are apparent, disputes can still arise as to whether these are man-made or natural. Moreover, one must consider that some stones are partly defaced by modern graffiti.

One stone is not enough! The evidentiary process of identification and interpretation of figures and markings as astronomy depends upon internal proof that such figures and markings are part of an ancient “system of notation”. That system must be apparent on individual stones at the site, at neighboring megalithic sites, or even as part of a "megalithic plan" involving more distant megalithic locations. If, for example, figures and markings on a given stone are said to mark a certain region of stars in the sky, then the marking of neighboring stones must “fit” logically to the stars so identified, and must mark systematically predictable stars in the sky, so that the entire system can and must -- in essence -- “prove itself” internally. Avebury does so.

Of course, other proofs are also possible, such as artefacts similar in artistic design to the materials under discussion.

For example, the otherwise virtually unknown Accession Number 60.145.11 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City was found online after our completion of the decipherment of Avebury Stone #10, a stone which has a similar motif on its left side (left as seen henge-outward).

Accession Number "60.145.11" is pictured below in our own illustrative approximate drawing and will be discussed subsequently in examining the left side of Avebury Stone #10.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, Accesss. No. 60.145.11
(This author’s approximate outline drawing in black and white)
"Neo-Assyrian Nubian Tribute Bearer" + Leopard Skin, Monkey, Oryx


The above-pictured Accession Number 60.145.11 at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City of a so-called "Neo-Assyrian Nubian Tribute Bearer" + Leopard Skin, Monkey, and Oryx (it may actually depict a calendration "high priest", as the priests wore leopard skins) is further of interest because the Egyptian god Seth was pictured as a canine, but more anciently as an oryx. See http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/horus.htm#ixzz3Fm4mqKrv

We thus found this arguably related woodcut image labeled "A huntsman carrying home the game, with his coupled dogs [“hounds”]. Thebes." in Sir John Gardner Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of The Ancient Egyptians, Volume 3, John Murray: London, 1837, plate 322, p. 13 at https://archive.org/details/mannerscustoms03wilk (clipped and tweaked):


The megalithic style of art by which "real" hand-worked megaliths can be distinguished from natural stones is the "prehistoric style of relief carving composition", whereby smaller figures are drawn within larger figures, i.e. a figure within a figure within a figure. Indeed, smaller figures were often carved within larger ones to the smallest degree. There are sometimes many more figures carved on the stones than we actually mark, because otherwise the larger figures would be virtually blotted out in our drawings.

There is no guarantee that these figures were all astronomical. However, we think that many are, conforming to a principle of hermeticism of Hermes Trismegistus, famously known, "as above, so below", whereby the ancients used the readily available "map" of the stars above to navigate and mark their way on Earth, both in terms of space (navigation, territorial viz. geographic orientation) and time (calendration).

The prehistoric artistic method thus used is reflected in the ancient mythology contained in the Latvian Dainas (http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi54.htm) and Teikas (http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi81.htm), with similar mythology also found among the other Baltic peoples, the Lithuanians and Estonians. Proto-European prehistoric peoples wished to "fill" stones with life, for the ancients were puzzled that "stones did not grow" as other things in nature did. Modernly, of course, "life" or "not life" is similarly still the "essential" difference between organic and inorganic chemistry. Our understanding has become more sophisticated over the millennia, but the basic essence of primordial questions about life remains.

The ancients first selected a stone (or separated it away from a larger source at a quarry) that had the approximate size and the shape that they wanted to have. In some cases that stone also had to have a particular color or texture (e.g. the blue speckled Preselli "Moon stones", chosen for their speckles -- so we allege -- for their similarity to the starry sky at night).

Subsequently, the ancients carved the large stone into a somewhat finer large figure. That shape could be e.g. a human head (often more than one), but it could also include animal heads and shapes. One presumes that such carved figures or heads were intended to represent the stone makers themselves, or other persons or VIPs in the community and family.

On that overall surface, the ancients then carved more figures representing large star groups, adding markings for the stars that represented those figures. These markings were often very faint lines outlining the shapes of carved shapes and variously sized holes, viz. cupmarks (cupules) representing the stars. On weathered stones, lichens sometimes cover shallower indentations in the stone, which are thus still apparent to the naked eye, but proving that such indentations were intentionally made is of course difficult.

As a general rule, the larger the hole or cupmark (cupule), the brighter the magnitude of the star. Weathering, however, can have changed the size of holes, so absolute conclusions here can not be made. Accordingly, the general difference in the size of markings can only be taken as a rough guideline for the magnitude of the stars that the ancients portrayed.

The ancients were sometimes also drawn to geometrically-shaped groupings or "swarms" of faintly visible stars, and also to geometric shapes in the void spaces between star groups.

The result is sometimes that initially insignificant-appearing smaller "details" carved on the stones can serve as critical evidence for the correctness of the identification of larger figures being portrayed. It all has to fit, like a puzzle.

Also the shape of the Milky Way can be marked on stone.

The front side of Avebury Stone #10, for example, provides us with excellent examples of the importance of examining details.
  • First, there is the strange shape of the stone.
  • Then there is the unexpected shape of a leg and a foot on the lower half.
  • A significant color difference exists between the top and the bottom of the stone on the back side. As we discovered, this was not chance, but was used by the ancients on the back side to portray a respective portion of the Milky Way.
  • Initial tracings of Avebury Stone #10 showed head-like shapes toward the bottom of the megalith. Once an initial hypothesis about the stars represented on the stone had been made, it then became quite clear that these shapes were intended to mark the edge of the Milky Way.
One "deciphered" stone side is not enough. One can sometimes find any number of alleged figures on a given stone – but are they really there at all, or if present, are they there by human design, and are they significant for astronomy? We thus proceed to examine further markings on other sides of that same stone and on neighboring stones. The probative value of any stone depends upon the weight of "the preponderance of the evidence" as provided by additional pieces of evidence.

For example, we identify markings on the front side of Avebury Stone #10 to mark the position of the Summer Solstice in ca. 3000 to 2500 B.C. in the stars (not the same as Solstice or Equinox risings). That location in the stars turns out to be Leo. Stars on that solstice colure (line) and stars neighboring Leo are also marked on the stone. We recognize that one such identification standing by itself means nothing as a matter of probative evidence. However, it gives us a point of reference: we have a starting point.

If the remaining sides of the stone as well as neighboring stones fit into this initially suggested system, then the preponderance of evidence could be considered to be overwhelming – and it is.

Starting at the next posting, we turn to the left side of Avebury Stone #10.

The Great Avebury Challenge - The Proof is in the Pudding - We Can Now Predict the Stars Marked on the Left, Right and Back Sides of Avebury Stone #10

And now we come to the really fun part of the entire decipherment process, because we begin to use a major test of the scientific method -- the test of prediction.

Our decipherment of the front side of Avebury Stone #10, standing by itself, has little probative value for it can not be used to prove itself....

However,
if our decipherment of the front side of Avebury Stone #10 is correct, and if the system we outlined in the initial Avebury Challenge correctly explains the manner in which the ancients carved and marked and placed the stones at Avebury Henge and Circle,
then the left and right sides of Avebury Stone #10, of which we previously published our photographs, MUST by shapes, lines and carvings, mark the stars viz. star regions to the left and right of the stars shown in our previous posting, while the back side of Avebury Stone #10 must mark the stars opposite those identified on the front side of that stone.

As luck would would have it, the relatively narrow left side of Avebury Stone #10 is on the whole so clear in its shapes, lines and markings that even persons in the archaeological professions who have no knowledge of astronomy as also persons in the astronomical profession who have no knowledge of archaeology should be able to see that our prediction is correct.
  • The left side of Avebury Stone #10 marks star regions as predicted.
  • The right side of Avebury Stone #10 marks star regions as predicted.
  • The back side of Avebury Stone #10 marks star regions as predicted.
    and, indeed,
  • The neighboring stones show stars to the left and right of those identified on the front side of Avebury Stone #10, as one would expect.
We show this in the subsequent postings.


The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Front Side - The Corresponding Stars on a Sky Map

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Front Side - The Corresponding Stars on a Sky Map
as Marked and Deciphered by Andis Kaulins

THIS IS THE REGION OF STARS SHOWN ON AVEBURY STONE #10 FRONT SIDE
Modernly, we look at this star map. At Avebury, you looked at Stone #10.

Stars and astronomical parameters represented on Avebury Stone #10 are shown here on a sky map clipped from the astronomy software Starry Night Pro, http://astronomy.starrynight.com/. Labeling adjustments and text explanations are by Andis Kaulins, who is unaffiliated with Starry Night Pro.

 

The underlying sky map here is clipped from the astronomy software Starry Night Pro, http://astronomy.starrynight.com/, using the GPS of Avebury as the location setting. We set the date to ca. 3000 BC and use Starry Night Pro's "white sky" setting, which makes the stars easier to locate on the screen.
We changed the color of all the major astronomical parameters to red, as all of those are marked on Avebury Stone #10 and are thus easier here for those to see who are not that familiar with these parameters. We also moved various labels around and changed the fonts and their sizes here and there so that they do not cover stars or other essential parameters.
Note in the left-hand corner how ACrux, the brightest star in Crux, is right on the galactic equator, which also corresponds to the most southerly limit of Milky Way visibility in that era. ACrux disappears from visibility soon after that era at the latitude of Avebury.
Note that the Summer Solstice is marked in the middle of the sky map image and corresponds to the middle of the front side of Avebury Stone #10.
The Winter Solstice is similarly marked in the middle of the stone on the back side of Avebury Stone #10.
Note how the line of the celestial equator is marked on the stone by the "overhanging" sheared stone. That is also the case for the back of the stone. Here on the front side the Milky Way is marked at the bottom of the stone. On the back side, the Milky Way is marked at the top of the stone, indeed in a lighter color.

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Front Side Trace in Color with Stars Marked

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Front Side Trace in Color with Stars by Andis Kaulins
This is the color tracing result for Avebury Stone #10.
Everyone will trace this stone somewhat differently, but the basic substance will still remain.

Provided that the attribution on the color tracing is retained, the above copyrighted illustration
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the
original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the
maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Front Side - The Stars in the Black and White Tracing

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Front Side - The Stars in the Black and White Tracing
as Deciphered by Andis Kaulins
These are the stars marked on the black & white tracing for Avebury Stone #10.
Everyone will trace this stone somewhat differently, but the basic substance will still remain.


Provided that the attribution on the tracing is retained, the above copyrighted illustration
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the
original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the
maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Front Side Black & White Tracing

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Front Side Black & White Tracing by Andis Kaulins
This is the black & white tracing result for Avebury Stone #10.
Everyone will trace this stone somewhat differently, but the basic substance will still remain.
 
Provided that the attribution on the photo tracing is retained, the above copyrighted illustration
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to this image here in any case. Independent tracing of the
original photograph by someone else and further work such as coloring become the copyright of the maker. Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Front Side Photo Traced

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Front Side Photo Traced by Andis Kaulins
This is our tracing of the prominent lines and possible markings on Avebury Stone #10.
Everyone will trace this stone somewhat differently, but the basic substance will still remain.

Provided that the attribution on the photo is retained, the above copyrighted photograph
and tracing is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Our tracing serves as our basis to further analyze the stone.
Others should make their OWN tracing, based on the untraced photograph previously published.

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Back Side Photograph

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Back Side Photograph by Andis Kaulins
For starters.... and to flex your creative muscles.... This is a tough one.
Could the whole stone be seen as a head facing either left OR right, with a pelt hat?
The top half of the stone is lighter in color than the bottom -- is that difference intentional?
Do you see the deep notches in the upper half? If intentionally cut, why was that done?
Does the upper left half look like a camel head (or wing) and the right half like a bird's head?
Does the bottom quarter of the stone look a bit like the outline of a boat? 
How many faces can you envision in the top half of the stone? large and small?
Provided that the attribution on the photo is retained, the above copyrighted photograph
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to the original photograph in any case, whereas a tracing of the
photograph and further work such as coloring becomes the copyright of the maker.
Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Right Side Photograph

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Right Side Photograph by Andis Kaulins
For starters.... and to flex your creative muscles....
Do you see a man's face with big eyes at the top? Bird or animal or both to his right?
Is there a large head below that with perhaps a face looking forward or right?
Do you see how the stone has been sheared at the right middle? Is that overlap intended?
Do you see the darker lower part of the left side of the stone?
Could one envision that to be a seal or some other water denizen?

From this angle, is there a large bird lower right with a head left and wing right?
 Provided that the attribution on the photo is retained, the above copyrighted photograph
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to the original photograph in any case, whereas a tracing of the
photograph and further work such as coloring becomes the copyright of the maker.
Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10 Left Side Photograph

The Great Avebury Challenge - Avebury Stone #10
Left Side Photograph by Andis Kaulins
For starters ... and to flex your creative muscles....
Do you see a large woman's face and figure (or hair) profile facing left?
Do you see a man's bearded head and figure at the right, possibly carrying something?
Do you see another figure to his front, facing right?
Are there any animal-like figures visible toward the bottom? 
Provided that the attribution on the photo is retained, the above copyrighted photograph
is published for free non-commercial "fair use" in any lawful publication,
and especially for content-related research, teaching, and educational use in general.
Andis Kaulins retains the copyright to the original photograph in any case, whereas a tracing of the
photograph and further work such as coloring becomes the copyright of the maker.
Have fun! and learn thereby to better understand our ancient human ancestors!

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Sky Earth Native America


Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
,
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    ,
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.

    -----

    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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