Saturday, February 14, 2015

Painting in Cave of the Indian in Tamaulipas Burgos Municipality Mexico Marks Taurus, Orion and Other Stars ca. 2300 B.C.

Many ancient cave paintings were recently discovered (2013) in Tamaulipas, Burgos municipality, Mexico, as reported at BBC News in Cave paintings in Mexico: Carvings uncovered in Burgos:
"Archaeologists in Mexico have found 4,926 well-preserved cave paintings in the north-eastern region of Burgos ... in 11 different sites."
As written by in Nearly 5,000 Ancient Cave Paintings Found In Mexico:
"This photo released by the National Institute of History and Anthropology (INAH) in Mexico, shows cave paintings found in the San Carlos mountain range in the Burgos municipality of the Tamaulipas State, Mexico. Archaeologist Martha García Sánchez said the paintings were made by at least three groups of hunter-gatherers and show hunting, fishing, housing, animals as well as religious and astronomical symbols. According to archaeologists the paintings have not been dated because they have yet to collect samples of the pigments used in the images."
Read the article to see a number of photos of the main cave paintings, one of which we decipher below as marking stars, perhaps ca. 2300 B.C. when the Celestial Equator split Taurus in two, with the cave painting showing such an unusual splitting of stars in this region.

We also considered the much earlier date of 5000 B.C. if one put the Vernal Equinox at the boat rudder below Auriga and above Orion, and indeed we did find a similar "Sun Line" shadow mark at page 20 in Todd W. Bostwick, Ph.D., Archaeoastronomy of the Southwest, Arizona Archaeological Society, 2007.

However, such an early date appeared too far back for us, but we did note the early dates referred to by K. Krist Hirst at archaeology.about.com in Ocampo Caves (Tamaulipas, Mexico): Evidence for Early Domestication of Crops.

In making our graphic image illustrations, we considered photographs by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH), photos found at the Los Angeles Review of Books in Gustavo A. Ramirez on the Rock Art of Burgos, Tamaulipas, Mexico and photos at La Gran Época, Anastasia Gubin, México: descubren 5000 pinturas rupestres en cuevas de Tamaulipas: La mayoría tiene un grado de conservación impresionante y representa sus viviendas, sus costumbres y formas de vida.

Our decipherment below shows a wall section of cave painting figures found at the Cave Painting of the Cave of the Indian, "Cueva del Indeo".

As seen there, some familiar star clusters (today constellations) are clearly marked, as is the Milky Way (the area we have marked in light blue).

The hour-glass figure of Orion is unmistakable, and the rest follow logically after that. Cancer, Gemini, and Auriga (unusual as a boat for these stars) are clearly marked above the Milky Way, Perseus in turn is marked in the Milky Way, and Canis Major, Orion and Taurus (the latter found in an unusual representation as two halves) together with the Hyades are marked below the Milky Way.

The locational mesh of star clusters and Milky Way (properly placed above, in or below that Milky Way) serves as very strong probative evidence for the correctness of our identification of the prominent star groups.

The "underworld" of the ocean below the Milky Way then shows Canis Major (with Sirius), Puppis (as a squid?), Carina as an electric (?) eel (with "shock" symbols ?, and with the major star Canopus as the eel's eye), and Columba as a turtle. Stars between Orion and Canis Major are seen as a fence.

Tamaulipas, Burgos Municipality, Mexico
The Cave Painting in the Cave of the Indian, "Cueva del Indeo"
Marks Orion and Neighboring Stars
With Taurus Split by the Celestial Equator ca. 2300 B.C.
Stars from Sirius to Perseus along the Milky Way Are Included


 The Corresponding Stars are Marked in Blue in the Image Below


 The stars between Canis Major and Orion seen as fence posts


Viewing these stars as "fence posts" is otherwise unknown to us in ancient astronomy, but one can see from the above image -- where we have drawn in the blue fence post lines -- that such a view fits the stars, and it indeed thus adds further probative value to the decipherment of the cave painting as presented above.

We know from our immediately preceding posting that the mounds of Poverty Point in Louisiana, USA, represent stars of the heavens that form the shape of a flying bird, which we call the "Thunderbird", found in close proximity and to the right of the famous star cluster of the Pleiades. These mounds by our decipherment marked the Vernal Equinox in ca. 1675 B.C.

We therefore sought evidence that Equinoxes and/or Solstices were similarly and systematically marked by stars in other previous eras in Native America.

Looking at the stars of Perseus and the Pleiades, to the left of them we find the stars of Taurus and lower and to the left we find the stars of Orion.

Looking at a map of North America, we saw that if it was marked consistently in the same system as Poverty Point, then we would surely have to cross the Gulf of Mexico to look for Native American sites that may have marked the stars of Taurus and/or Orion. Tamaulipas, Burgos Municipality, fit the bill, marking ca. 2300 B.C. when the Celestial Equator split Taurus as apparently marked in the cave painting and when the Vernal Equinox was left of the Pleiades in Taurus.

Stars along the Milky Way from Canis Major (and some stars below and to the left of that) to Perseus are marked on the cave painting of the "Cave of the Indian" -- "Cueva del Indeo", although the chronological dating of the figures is still uncertain, with the options of ca. 2300 B.C. or ca. 5000 B.C. both possible, with the latter, however, very unlikely in our opinion. It will be interesting to see what the radiocarbon data ultimately tell us.

THIS POSTING IS Posting Number 14 of
The Great Mound, Petroglyph and Painted Rock Art Journey of Native America

Cave Painting in Cave of the Indian in Tamaulipas Burgos Municipality Mexico Marks Taurus and Other Stars ca. 2300 B.C.

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Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
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Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
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    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.

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    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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