Sunday, December 29, 2013

The Carn Bica Mini-Planisphere Suggests Boötes Takes its Name from Bantu Biti "Hyena"

Carn Bica in the Preseli Hills in Pembrokeshire, Wales, marks the star Er Rai "the King" in Cepheus in the Preseli megalithic planisphere, but the stones at Carn Bica themselves form a "mini-planisphere" of the brightest stars groups found WITHIN the Milky Way ellipse starting with Cepheus as the head of the king, Ursa Minor as the tailed animal headdress, Draco as a camel (so seen by the Berbers because of the "humped" shape of Draco) and Boötes as a hyena.

According to my decipherments, the ancients made planispheres of stars within the ellipse of the Milky Way ca. 4000 B.C. or previous -- such as e.g. the Lake Onega Planisphere (my decipherment) now located in the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Note that the ancients saw the brightest star groups in the heavens similarly to -- but surely not identically with -- the way we see them today.

The Berbers of North Africa saw heaven's center as a camel chased by hyenas and one or two hyenas could be marked in the stones at Carn Bica, one as a possibly baby hyena (?) in the hand (?) of the king and the other off to the right in the stones -- in our decipherment -- as Boötes, a constellation whose name is a term of ancient unknown origin.

This location of the hyena at "Bootes" (without the Umlaut for search engines) puzzled us greatly since it did not correspond to known ancient names for Boötes in Richard Hinckley Allen's Star Names, so we followed a hunch and looked at the languages of Africa, thus discovering that the Bantu Kinyamwezi word for "hyena" is bìtí, which definitely now suggests that the modern and ancient term Boötes may come from an older term in Africa originally meaning "hyena(s)". (Several other Bantu languages have a similar "b-" based term for "hyena" but have lost the T.) See The Bantu Basic Vocabulary Database. Such discoveries occur when the decipherment is sound.

Decipherment and illustration above by Andis Kaulins, December 29, 2013. The illustration is based upon a tracing by Andis Kaulins
(see the traced photo below)
of a photo by Rudi Winter © 2010 at, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0).

White marks on stone can sometimes reflect cupmarks and in this case were instrumental to identify the head stars of Scorpio -- lower right hand corner.

Please note that this posting is part of a series of postings by Andis Kaulins on the megalithic sites in the Preseli Hills, Pembrokeshire, Wales. See also:

Decipherment of Carn Arthur, Wales, Pembrokeshire as Hermetic Astronomy, "As Above, So Below"

Carn Menyn (Carn Meini, OS Carnmenyn) Deciphered as Marking the Stars of Draco

King Arthur Pictured at Carn Bica Outcrop: Arthur's "Bedd" is the Circle of Precession

What is the Ancient Gaelic Term for "King"?

King Arthur at Carn Bica Outcrop - Visual Interpretation for Those Who May Be Good at Texts but Not At Picture Visualization

What About that Camel in the King Arthur Carn Bica Outcrop?

King Arthur, the Carn Bica Outcrop, A Berber Camel, and Two Hyenas at Heaven's Center in Ancient Astronomy

Friday, December 13, 2013

King Arthur, the Carn Bica Outcrop, A Berber Camel, and Two Hyenas at Heaven's Center in Ancient Astronomy

Once the figure of the camel was ascertained at the King Arthur Carn Bica Outcrop, it was likely, based on the discussion in our previous posting, that this same megalithic site might also have stone portrayals of dog-like animals attacking the (baby) camel near King Arthur, and such is the case. Based on the rounder shape of the ears of the two, we think they represent hyenas.

Here is the original photograph by Rudi Winter © 2010 at Geograph, which has a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) license, see Rock outcrops near Carn Bica (Rudi Winter) / CC BY-SA 2.0

We have clipped and resized the image below,
and added two red ellipses showing what we think are the two hyenas.

What About that Camel in the King Arthur Carn Bica Outcrop?

The Carn Bica Outcrop photograph presented in previous postings has to the right of King Arthur a group of stones in the shape of a camel. What in the world is a camel doing there?

The presence of the camel can be explained by three interconnected pieces of evidence:
  • The first relates to the fact that -- in our decipherment -- Carn Meini, Carn Arthur and the Carn Bica Outcrop represent stars at or near the center of heaven, i.e. in the starry night of stars. As I have previously written at Megalithic World:

    "[T]he Arabic Bedouins in Egypt, instead of a dragon, saw a circle of camels at heaven's center that was being attacked by hyenas. We can thus understand why the Arabs have a heavenly “"wolf" Al-Dhib (Thuban) where Ptolemy places Draco the dragon. The Arabs did not originally have either dragon or falcon as symbols for heaven’s poles but rather visualized dog-like animals. Thuban (al-Dhib) did not belong to Draco, but rather marked the Arabic center of heaven as either a dog, wolf, jackal or hyena....

    The name Edasich for iota-Draconis comes from the Arabic Al Dhih as well as Al Dikh, the dog-like hyena. It is a word which is easily confused with Al Dibh "Wolf" and also with Hebrew Da’ah "falcon-like bird". In the Bible, the same Hebrew word is translated as dragon, snake or jackal.

    Those are the main historical representations of heaven's center of stars.

    Gerardus D. Bouw, Draco the Dragon, Biblical Astronomer, Number 100, wrote:
    "The [translations of the modern versions [of the Bible] avoid dragons like the plague they are. The NASV translates the Hebrew word as a serpent in Deu. 32:33, but then translates the same word as a "jackal" in Isa. 34:13. In Psa. 74:13 the translating committee felt it safe to translate the Hebrew as "sea serpent" but in Jer. 9:11; 14:6; Mic. 1:8, and Mal. 1:3, it’s back to a "jackal" again. For some reason, the committee decided that it’s all right to use "dragon" in Revelation....

    [I]n Draco, instead of the head of a dragon, [the Arabs] saw a ring of mother camels … surrounding a baby camel…. The camels were seen protecting the baby from a line of charging hyenas (Al Dhih, q, h, and z).

We show the dog-like hyenas (or jackals) at the Carn Bica Outcrop in the next posting.
  • The second piece of evidence is found in the myths and legends of the British Isles, which are replete with reference to Scota and a story of the North African, likely Berber origin of the Gaelic peoples -- a legend that can hardly stem from fantasy alone, for there appears no reason at all to make up a distant ancestry connection like that one. Written at the Wikipedia at Scota:
"Edward J. Cowan has traced the first appearance of Scota in literature to the 12th century.[1] Scota appears in the Irish chronicle Book of Leinster (containing a redaction of the Lebor Gabála Érenn).[2] However a recension found in an 11th-century manuscript of the Historia Brittonum contains an earlier reference to Scota.[3] The 12th-century sources state that Scota was the daughter of an Egyptian pharaoh, a contemporary of Moses, who married Geytholos (Goídel Glas) and became the eponymous founders of the Scots and Gaels after being exiled from Egypt.[4] The earliest Scottish sources claim Geytholos was "a certain king of the countries of Greece, Neolus, or Heolaus, by name", while the Lebor Gabála Érenn Leinster redaction in contrast describes him as a Scythian. Other manuscripts of the Lebor Gabála Érenn contain a variant legend of Scota's husband, not as Goídel Glas but instead Mil Espaine and connect him to ancient Iberia.[5][6]
Another variant myth in the redactions of the Lebor Gabála Érenn state that there was another Scota who was the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh named Cingris, a name found only in Irish legend. She married Niul, son of Fenius Farsaid, a Babylonian who travelled to Scythia after the collapse of the Tower of Babel. Niul was a scholar of languages, and was invited by the pharaoh to Egypt and given Scota's hand in marriage. They had a son, Goídel Glas, the eponymous ancestor of the Gaels, who created the Gaelic language by combining the best features of the 72 languages then in existence. See also Geoffrey Keating. Although these legends vary, they all agree that Scota was the eponymous founder of the Scots and that she also gave her name to Scotland."
  • The third piece of evidence is found in modern genetics. As reported by BBC News, men from northeast Wales have an 'extraordinary' genetic make-up" which is "usually found in the eastern Mediterranean". An ancient connection between northeast Wales and that part of the world is thus very likely.

    Similar results are found for Scotland and ScotlandsDNA.

    Adrift among the stars
    and citing to The Scotsman wrote: 
"The Scotland’s DNA project has found that no less than 1% of the Scots tested carry a genetic marker which originated in North Africa. The researchers say that the gene, common today amongst the Berber and Tuareg people, is estimated to have originated around 5,600 years ago."
That date approximately fits the date we assign to the astronomy represented at the megalithic sites of Carn Arthur, Carn Meini and Carn Bica Outcrop in Wales in Pembrokeshire, sometime around 4000 B.C.

Note that a linguistic similarity of unknown date of origin is also found, e.g. at Steve Hewitt, Remarks on the Insular Celtic/Hamito-Semitic Question,

Wednesday, December 11, 2013

King Arthur at Carn Bica Outcrop - Visual Interpretation for Those Who May Be Good at Texts but Not At Picture Visualization

Over the course of the years we have discovered that some people may excel at "texts" but may not be so good at "pictures", so we have clipped the original photograph by Rudi Winter to make it "more obvious" what is shown by the stones.

This posting follows on the our most recent postings about Carn Arthur, Carn Meini, Bedd Arthur, and the Carn Bica Outcrop in Pembrokeshire, Wales, UK.

We have resized the head and surrounding stones -- all equally -- and then traced the outlines of the stones and the most prominent lines in the stones. I have then colored the resulting traced stones so that ANYONE can see quite clearly and unequivocally what is represented by them. There are surely more figures represented by the stones, but that is not material to the main question, which is the portrayal of the main items in the scene.

Below the interpretation is the tracing. We stick to the original stones! The original, here changed, photograph was by Rudi Winter © 2010 at Geograph, which has a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) license, see Rock outcrops near Carn Bica (Rudi Winter) / CC BY-SA 2.0. The original image is found here. These are interpretations by Andis Kaulins:

What is the Ancient Gaelic Term for "King"?

, or very commonly ríg (genitive), is an ancient Gaelic word meaning "King".[1] It is used in historical texts referring to the Irish and Scottish kings and those of similar rank. While the modern Irish word is exactly the same,[2] in modern Scottish Gaelic it is Rìgh,[3] apparently derived from the genitive. The word comes from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃rēǵs ("ruler, king"). Cognates include Sanskrit 'rā́jan' ("king") and Latin 'rex' ("king, ruler").

From The Wikipedia at Ri.

Now see my previous posting, again, if need be.

King Arthur Pictured at Carn Bica Outcrop: Arthur's "Bedd" is the Circle of Precession

The hermetic planisphere at Pembrokeshire in Wales reveals to us the secret of one of the great so-called myths of Ancient Britain, namely the origin of the legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, which I have long alleged to be astronomical in substance.

We see now from my previous two decipherments of Carn Arthur and Carn Meini that the standing stones of Bedd Arthur are in fact "located" at King Arthur's "bed'", which is the fixed circle of precession, surely marked here at the star Pi Cephei.

The Tip of the "pyramid" of Cepheus -- surely the astronomical origin of the concept of "pyramid-building", if astronomy played a role at inception -- is marked by the star Gamma Cephai, known as Er Rai, thought to be of Arabic origin as Al Rai, the Shepherd, but more likely simply "Rex", "the King", since the King's Head is ordinarily said to be marked by the Cepheus stars of delta, epsilon, zeta and lambda (see Richard Hinckley Allen, Star Names, p. 158), but that is of course nonsense, since those are in the left corner of Cepheus at the base of the pyramid, and much too small in grouping to be the King's head, located also right where Cepheus connects to the river of the Milky Way.

Photograph by Rudi Winter © 2010 at Geograph, Creative Commons License, see below

What our decipherment of the hermetic planisphere of Pembrokeshire, Wales suggests then is that a most singular outcrop of Carn Bica provides us with nothing less than a sculpture of King Arthur's head personally (see the image above).

That is the photograph by Rudi Winter © 2010 at Geograph, which has a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0) license, see
Rock outcrops near Carn Bica (Rudi Winter) / CC BY-SA 2.0
The image is found here.

Carn Menyn (Carn Meini, OS Carnmenyn) Deciphered as Marking the Stars of Draco

This posting follows on the previous one about Carn Arthur, which marks Cepheus.

As I have now discovered and deciphered, the nearby and somewhat higher elevated Carn Menyn, formerly and more correctly Carn Meini, given by the Ordnance Survey as Carnmenyn, represents the "main" (=Meine) Carn in the astronomical system in Pembrokeshire, Wales, which marks a hermetic planisphere of the heavens at that localization ("as above, so below").

Go to to see a more detailed map of Carn Menyn.

Pharaonic Reigns of Kings of Egypt of 1st Dynasty Redated by Oxford University Archaeologists

Archaeologists at Oxford University (UK),
-- apparently trying to practice "evidence-based" archaeology --
are using newest technologies and radiocarbon data,
and have now redated the Pharaonic reigns
of the 1st Dynasty of kings of ancient Egypt, as follows:
New Dates for Rule of the Pharaohs of the 1st Dynasty
according to Oxford University Archaeology
  • King Aha 3111 B.C. and 3045 B.C. 
  • King Djer 3073 B.C. to 3036 B.C. 
  • King Djet 2989 B.C. to 2941 B.C 
  • Queen Merneith 2946 B.C. to 2916 B.C. 
  • King Den 2928 B.C. to 2911 B.C. 
  • King Anedjib 2916 B.C. to 2896 B.C. 
  • King Semerkhet from 2912 B.C. to  2891 B.C. 
  • King Qa'a from 2906 B.C. to 2886 B.C.
See Ancient Egypt Timeline Suggests Civilization Developed Faster Than Previously Thought at Huntington Post by Laura Poppick in LiveScience. 

Of course, the more they redate their data, the closer they are coming to our own long-since published timeline of reigns of the Pharaohs as based mainly on astronomical considerations.

Here are the dates we posted years ago to LexiLine and elsewhere based on astronomical calculations and analysis of Manetho's dynasties.
  • King Aha 3117 B.C. and 3054 B.C.  -- The name Menes surely goes back to the Greek name for Aha's hieroglyph which consists of a long bread shovel and kiln, Greek
    κάμινος i.e. Menes was reprsented by κά μινος, but the intention here is to name him as "the Moon", in Indo-European e.g. Latvian Mēness "moon". The ka- particle might be represented by the shovel viz. spoon element in the hieroglyph, in Latvian karote.
  • ?? (Djer) 3054 B.C. to 2997 B.C. 
  • King Djed 2997 B.C. to 2967 B.C 
  • King Den 2967 B.C. to 2945 B.C. 
  • ?? (Queen Merneith) 2967 B.C. to 2945 B.C. 
  • King Anedjib 2900 B.C. to 2880 B.C. 
  • King Semerkhet from 2880 B.C. to  2865 B.C. 
  • King Qa'a from 2865 B.C. to 2837 B.C.
Manetho wrote that the First Dynasty extended 263 years (which Africanus summed as 253 years). For our list, it would mean the first Dynasty ran from 3117 B.C: to 2854 B.C., i.e. ended with the reign of Qa'a.

We have in the interim refined the star realms that we think were intended by the reigns but that part of our work is still a road under construction.

Start of the Calender at dawn
near the
Winter Solstice Point
3117 BC
at Deneb Al Giedi viz. Nashira in Capricorn

(we note the above date as December 25, 3117 in the images,
but of course, as that date should be adjusted
by a thus far non-existing calendric correction for precession)
Conjunction and Eclipses on this date
of the Sun, Moon and Jupiter.
The Moon and Sun repeat here every 1460 years
(4 x 365 = 1460). 
the ancients saw an eclipse of the Sun at dawn
near the Winter Solstice point
as a "starting" point for their heaven-based calender.
This date in fact marks the start of Pharaonic Egyptian, Biblical, Hindu and Maya Calendars.

By our calcualtions, Starry Night Pro, far more accurate by the way than e.g. Red Shift, some years ago in Version 3.0 showed this stellar position nearly correctly, but since then in more recent versions has used what is proving to be an erroneous position of the pole, which apparently is now being corrected. A new Delta T value also seems to have brought errors.

Pharaonic reigns correspond to star reigns. That was the custom.
"As above, so below". Rulers had a "realm" of stars that marked their earthly reign.

The eclipse of the Sun at sunrise in Capricorn on the Winter Solstice date
is shown on the famed Narmer Palette as follows (our decipherment and analysis),

and below that we also show the Chronology Palette of Narmer,
which shows -- in our analysis and decipherment -- that 180 years had passed since the founding of Pharaonic Egypt and that same chronology palette:

Speculative Timeline
of the Ancient World
by Astronomy

This is a timeline in development.

Event or King
8957 BC
Pleiades at the Winter Solstice
in the Cave of the Dead Man

The mainstream dates this earlier,
but we see big problems with that dating.
Charcoal in the caves could date from earlier use of the cave by man and is no proof the paintings are equally old and, indeed, as written at, "the charcoal washed into the cave and found immediately below the calcited basins of the Hall of the Bulls and the Passageway, together with that recovered from the debris cone in the entrance woe, showed a possible occupation of the site during the Mesolithic. This last attempt to enter the cave, which was perhaps merely an occupation close to the entrance, has left absolutely no trace of portable objects or colouring matter. The weighted mean of the five more recent dates is 8380 ± 60 BP."
That is close to the date of our astronomical analysis of the paintings as represented in the painting at the Cave of the Dead Man at Lascaux.
7497 BC
Cave Painting Planisphere at Ignatievka
Rock Planisphere of Lake Onega in the Hermitage
6037 BC
Sahara Rock Drawings
4577 BC
Rock Sky Map, White Sea, Staraya Zalavruga, Karelia
Start of the Calender
Calendric Genesis = Adam = Odin = Menes
=  Deneb Al Giedi in Capricorn
Winter Solstice, 3117 BC
Conjunction and Eclipses
of the Sun, Moon and Jupiter.
The Moon and Sun repeat here every 1460 years.

This date marks the date of the start of Pharaonic Egyptian, Biblical, Hindu and Maya Calendars - as demonstrated in detail on the separate pages which follow - the lengths of "reign" derive from Pharaonic dynasties listed on monuments, hieroglyphs and papyri. The monument of Khasekhemwy is e.g. very important. The pharaonic reigns correspond to star reigns.
Start of the Calender
 Calender Creation
Narmer = Naram-Sin = Nara-Simsah = Scorpion King = Aldebaran /Antares (creator of the 1st calender merging earth and heaven - "the two lands" - by astronomical "hermetic" geodetics as Scorpio marks Autumn Equinox in 3117 BC
Narmer i.e. Nar-Mer has the name root MER-
(mērīt means "measure" in Indo-European, e.g. Latvian)
Sin is an old name for "Moon" and Shamash is an old name for the Sun - whence the variant Egyptian explanations. 
 Calender Creation
3117 BC
Hor-Aha = Hor-Vandillus = Seth = Athothis = Orion
(Hor-Aha = King Orry = legendary King Arthur)
Year 0
3054 BC
Athothis II = Osiris = Kenkenis = Cain = Canis Major
2997 BC
Athothis III = Djed = Gemini (Abel)
2967 BC
Enos = Den = Cancer
2945 BC
Mahalaleel = MaLikiyy = Jared = Lugal = Leo
2925 BC
Jared = (Djer?) = Hydra
2900 BC
Enoch = Anedjib = Denebola
2880 BC
Methuselah = Semerchet = Coma Berenices
= Sechem-Ka and Merneith
2865 BC
Qa'a = Lamech = Spica

Event or King    

November 19, 2837 Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the sky location Antares / Dschubba in Scorpio = Hetep Sekhemwy

2825 BC
= Antares viz. Dschubba = Noah
2786 BC
Shem = Kaiekos = Raneb
= the Prong of Sagittarius
2740 BC
Arphaxad = Nynetjer
= Enif (viz. Markab) = Pegasus
(Sometimes the star to start is used but sometimes also the star to end the reign was used by the ancients.)
2720 BC
Sechemib = Weneg = Salah = Shalish = Tlas = Al Dalw = the Water Bucket of Aquarius
2680 BC
Eber = Sethenis = Seth-Peribsen
= Al  Sharatan = Aries
2663 BC
Khasekhem (variant of Khasekhemwy)
2638 BC
Peleg = Khasekhemwy = Pleiades viz. Aldebaran and the Hyades (Please Note - for specialists - After Khasekhemwy, Manetho follows the stellar reigns of the stars, rather than the length of reigns as given on the Turin Canon.)
2638 BC
Khasekhemwy makes the first intercalation for the tropical year of 365.25 days in the 480th running year after 3117 BC and thus sets a precedent for such intercalation every 480 years.
In 480 years 120 leap days must be added to a solar calendar of 365 days to get it in sync with the tropical year (star time). The total lengths of reigns for the remaining "Old Kingdom" Pharaohs on the Turin Canon of Kings is also ca. 480 years and this brings the Old Kingdom to an end on 2157 BC - according to the Turin Canon. The 120-day intercalation made at this time in Egypt has been misinterpreted as 120 "years" by the Egyptologists and assigned to the 9th and 10th Dynasties (ca. 2160-2040 BC in Clayton's Chronicle of the Pharaohs), which is also called the First Intermediate Period. The Egyptologists have erred. Similar 120-day intercalations were made at 480-year intervals in 1677 BC (2nd Intermediate Period and period of the Hyksos) , in 1197 BC (this is Sethos, also known as King David in the Bible), 717 BC (Reign of Numa Pompilius, the 1st calendric king of Rome, begins), and 237 BC (restoration of the Etruscan "secular games" in Rome). It must be noted however that the Turin Canon did not properly understand the division of Kingdoms. One kingdom was the Metonic Cycle (19 years) times the Saros Cycle (18 years) x 2 = 684 years, as seen on ancient monuments.
See Narmer Heb-Sed

April 1, 2471 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades and the red star Aldebaran = Red Pyramid of Snofru
September 2, 2469 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo = Bent Pyramid and why there is west high entrance here, such as not found in any other pyramid

2433 BC
The Great Geodetic Pyramids of Giza are built, to calculate and correct for precession, starting with the Cheops Pyramid. Go to the Great Pyramid
July 25, 2430 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Zosma and Chort (these are marked by the Kings and Queens Chambers at the Great Pyramid and by the Sphinx = Leo)

March 23, 2340 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades under the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is RA-thosis (= Chephren, Khaf-RA).

December 20, 2289 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the boat of Capricorn with a bird (Aquila) in the eclipse boat.

    Event or King    
2159 BC
Antef I (also written Intef)
First Intermediate Period of 120 years (sic). Actually, 120 days are intercalated for the tropical year. June 29, 2159 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the middle of Cancer. Antev refers to the (astronomical) high priest but perhaps also means an eclipse.
(2 x 480 actually 2 x 479)
2079 BC
Antef II
September 11, 2079 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo (whence the bushy hieroglyph).

2044 BC
Antef III
April 20, 2044 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is ANtef III since ENA means eclipse. The eclipse - according to Pharaonic records - occurred in the 39th year of the reign of Mentuhotep, so that Mentuhotep's reign started 2083 BC.


1884 BC
September 15, 1884 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo. This was the expedition taken in the 24th year of Amenemhet II's reign and the 4th year of Senwosret's concurrent reign - the son was taken along to see the eclipse, making the start of Amenemhet II's reign at 1908 BC.

1749 BC
Papyrus of Ebers
Correction for Precession
(2 x 684)
1741 BC
Antef IV
December 21, 1741 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the boat of Capricorn = Chendjer
1707 BC
Birth of Moses in the reign of Chaneferre, so Artapanus.

1699 BC
April 16, 1699 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the Pleiades under the gate of heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is Pharaoh Sobekhotep IV Chaneferre, who ruled 10 years, during whose reign Moses was born, according to Artapanus, so this puts the start of the reign of Chaneferre at 1709 BC. His cartouche shows the Sun, Moon and throat sign - i.e. eclipse.

1677 BC
Second Intermediate Period
Hyksos = Midianites
(3 x 480)
August 4
1627 BC
Exodus, the Volcano Santorin explodes on Thera This volcanic activity is marked by a conjunction of Sun, Jupiter, Venus and Mars at the tail of Leo in August 4, 1627 BC.
Moses is 80 at this time according to the sources and lives to be 83. Joshua (Ahmose) is king and rules 57 years to 1570 BC.
1533 BC
May 9, 1533 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the upraised right arm of Orion (near Aldebaran) below the gate to heaven between Auriga and Perseus. This is Amenhotep I and his cartouche shows the arm of Orion.
Amenhotep I
1478 BC
June 1, 1478 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. The "pot" for the "well of Gemini" is shown in the cartouche of Hatshepsut, co-regent with son Thutmosis III.
Hatshepsut Thutmosis III
1338 BC
May 14, 1338 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at the upraised right arm of Orion. This is Amenhotep III. In the cartouche the upraised arm of Orion is the staff of Orion.
Amenhotep III
1258 BC
July 27, 1258 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Regulus in Leo. This was later the origin of "sparkling Aton" (it must have been a coronal eclipse, as Starry Night Pro seems to also show) applied later to Echnaton (Akhenaten), called King SAUL because his birth occurred with an eclipse in the kingly sign of the lion. The solar eclipse probably passed over Amarna, which was why the capital was later moved to Amarna.
Amenhotep IV
Echnaton (Akhenaten)
1197 BC
King David (= Sethos I who was Ramses I)
begins a rule of 40 years. These years are shown in the famous hall of records of Sethos.
(4 x 480)
1157 BC
Ramses II (= King Solomon)
begins a rule of 67 years.
This is the August 19, 1157 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt near Spica in Virgo, on a line with MIZAR (=MESES in Rameses)
Ramses II
1152 BC
The Battle of Kadesh takes place in the 5th year of the reign of King Solomon (Ramses II), allegedly ca. 480 years after Exodus (so the Bible), but it appears that the start of the reign of Ramses is 480 years after Exodus..
Battle of Kadesh
1129 BC
February 14, 1129 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt below the back end of Pisces, under Pegasus, the Great Square. In the 29th year of the reign of Ramses II at Abu Simbel - marking the reign of Ramses II - there is an entry uncertainly identified by the Egyptologists as an "earthquake" It is a solar eclipse.

Abu Simbel
1090 BC
Merenptah = Rehoboam
Priam (King of Lydia, Troy) = Jeroboam. This rivalry leads to the Trojan War in this period.
 Merenptah Rehoboam Priam Jeroboam
1063 BC
July 31, 1063 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Chort and Zosma in Leo. This is shown in the cartouche of Pharaoh Siptah and perhaps the cartouche of Sethnacht also marked this event.
 Siptah Sethnacht
1060 BC
Shishak = Ramses III. Shishak's was not an Egyptian, as his building of a Syrian migdol in Egypt shows. This is the period of the war against the sea peoples, the "Trojan War"
Ramses III
Trojan War
957 BC
May 31, 957 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt in the "pot" or "well" of Gemini. This is the Pharaoh Herihor.
948 BC
May 22, 948 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt above Orion. This is the Pharaoh Pinodjem.
932 BC
January 27, 932 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Markab in Pegasus. This is the Pharaoh Masaharta.
831 BC
August 15, 831 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Denebola in Leo. The end tail star of Leo is shown as the tail in the cartouche of Psusennes II and III (same person?). Latvian PUS-ENAS would mean "half an eclipse, partial eclipse" = PSUSENNES.

716 BC 
Start of the reign of Numa Pompilius,
the 1st calendric king of Rome, begins
(5 x 480)
636 BC
August 19, 636 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Denebola in Leo. This is Pharaoh Tefnacht.

582 BC
September 21, 582 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Spica in Virgo. This unusual heavenly conjunction involved an occultation of Jupiter, Saturn and Mercury. Taking the Moon or the Sun to be the host, there were "four visitors". These four "visitors" are glorified in the monument of Pianchi (Peje).

517 BC
March 28, 517 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Sheratan in Aries. This is Taharqa (Aries) going on to Tanutamani (Taurus).
502 BC
December 4, 502 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus I.
493 BC
November 24, 493 BC Solar Eclipse over Egypt at Sagittarius. This is Psammetichus II.
236 BC
Restoration of the Etruscan
"Secular (calendric) Games" in Rome
(6 x 480)

Go to Khasekhemwy
Go to Kings after Khasekhemwy

Decipherment of Carn Arthur, Wales, Pembrokeshire as Hermetic Astronomy, "As Above, So Below"

The speckled Stonehenge Bluestones are in the news again for Carn Goedog as the likely major source of Stonehenge doleritic bluestones. See

Obviously, these were dark speckled lunar bluish "moon stones" and were chosen for being similar to the starry night through their speckled appearance. They were used for lunar and eclipse cycle calculations.

In this same Preseli area of Wales, I have been able to decipher Carn Arthur, Wales, Pembrokeshire, as hermetic astronomy, "as above, so below", showing that Carn Arthur marks the stars from Cancer to Cepheus and Pegasus, which corresponds roughly to the stars extending from the Spring Equinox to the Winter Solstice in ca. 4000 B.C. Always remembering that the ancients may not have had a 1-to-1 correspondence with our current stellar constellations, but close to them, Carn Arthur shows Canis Major and perhaps Canis Minor as a cat and puppy dog, Cancer as a woman, Gemini as two chicks (chickens), Orion as two persons with some kind of relationship to fertility, perhaps showing the birth of an infant and older children's faces, Lepus as a face of some kind, perhaps the mother-in-law (:-)), Auriga as a duck, Taurus as an extended serpent, Pisces as a fish, the Pleiades as baby ducks (Latvian Pīlites = baby ducks = Pleiades), Perseus as a head, Andromeda as a larger head, Cassiopeia as the "ribbon" in the hair of that head, Cepheus as a head, torso and leg from the side and back, and Pegasus (the Great Square) as a head.

Friday, October 11, 2013

Protection of Cultural Heritage in Times of Armed Conflict: Fordham Law School, Lincoln Center Campus, Friday, November 1, 2013. Register Online

Cultural Heritage Lawyer Rick St. Hilaire reports
on the
Upcoming LCCHP Event in New York: The Monuments Men, Social Media, the Law and Cultural Heritage: Historical, Political, Social and Cultural Perspectives on the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Times of Armed Conflict,


Fordham Law School, Lincoln Center Campus, Friday, November 1, 2013.

Register Online at the above link.

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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