Wednesday, May 26, 2004

Nomes of Ancient Egypt and Hermetic Astronomy

Nomes of Ancient Egypt and Archaeoastronomy

Several postings of text materials and graphics are found at the Ancient Egypt Blog showing that the Nomes of Ancient Egypt reflected hermetic astronomy.

The Nomes of Upper Egypt marked the stars above the Ecliptic.

The Nomes of Lower Egypt marked the stars below the Ecliptic.

Monday, May 24, 2004

The Lost Ark of the Covenant - Sources and Location

The Lost Ark of the Covenant - Sources

The Mishnayot is the historical document which recounts the hiding of the Ark of the Covenant (the Ark of the Law). Read the Mishnayot. Any theory about the Ark of the Covenant must mesh with this document since it has since been confirmed by other sources as follows - see "Vendyl Jones and the Ark of the Covenant" by Gerard Robins, which was published as a series of articles in the Jewish Herald Voice Newspaper, Houston, Texas, May 2000.

Verifying Sources - Dead Sea Scrolls (Qumran Scrolls)

The first of the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in modern times, i.e. in 1947.

Qumran Scrolls - The Copper Scroll

One of the Dead Sea Scrolls found at Qumran is the famed Copper Scroll - made of pure copper - which was found at Qumran in 1952. The Copper Scroll is the inventory - written in Hebrew - of the holy treasures of Solomon's First Temple, treasures which were hidden by the Hebrews before the destruction of that temple by the Babylonians (Assyrians). These treasures have (allegedly) not been seen since.

The Copper Scroll tells us that a silver [mistranslation for alabaster] chest, the vestments of the Cohen Gadol (Hebrew High Priest), gold and silver in great quantities, the Tabernacle of the Lord (the Mishkan) and many treasures were hidden in a desolate valley under a hill - on its east side, forty stones deep. The Mishkan was a "portable" Temple for the Ark of the Covenant.

Qumran Scrolls - The Copper Scroll

The writings in the Copper Scroll were confirmed 40 years later in the 1990s through an ancient text found in the introduction to Emeq HaMelekh ("Valley of the King(s)"), a book published in 1648 in Amsterdam, Holland, by Rabbi Naftali Hertz Ben Ya’acov Elchanon. The book's introduction included ancient records which Rabbi Hertz called the "Mishnayot". Hertz used the term Mishnayot, since the text of the Mishnayot is missing from the Mishnah (Mishna), which is the first section of the Talmud, a collection of ancient Rabbinic writings including also the Gemara, "the summary", and containing the Jewish religious law.

Qumran Scrolls - The Massakhet Keilim

The "missing" Mishnaic text in the Mishnayot is called the 'Massakhet Keilim', written in twelve chapters. Each chapter of the Mishnayot describes vessels which were hidden under the direction of Jeremiah the Prophet by five holy men (Shimor HaLevi, Chizkiah, Tzidkiyahu, Haggai the Prophet and Zechariah the Prophet), seven years prior to the destruction of Solomon's First Temple, because the dangers of Babylonian conquest were imminent. The Mishnayot - which describes this hiding - was then allegedly written in Babylon during the Babylonian Captivity.

The Marble Tablets of Beirut

In 1952 two large marble tablets were found in the basement of a museum in Beirut, stating they were the words of Shimor HaLevi, the servant of HaShem, and the writing on the tablets is the entire missing text of "Massakhet Keilim" (Mishnayot) including reference to the Copper Scroll.

The Mishnayot and the Hiding of the Lost Ark

The first chapter of the Mishnayot describes the vessels that were hidden - including the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle of the Lord, i.e. the Mishkan, the Tablets of Moses, the altar (with cherubs) for the daily and seasonal sacrifices (the ushebtis), the Menorah (candelabra), the Qalal (copper urn) containing the Ashes of the Red Heifer (ashes from a red cow sacrificed under Moses, necessary for ritual purification of the priests), and numerous vessels of the Kohanim (priests).

The second chapter of the Mishnayot states that a list of these treasures was inscribed upon a copper tablet. This is the Copper Scroll found at Qumran.

The Tosefta

Work in the 1990s showed that in 1896, almost one hundred years previous, Solomon Schechter at Cambridge University in England had acquired 100,000 pages of ancient Hebrew texts from the Genizah (repository for aged sacred Jewish texts) of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo, Egypt. A copy of the "Tosefta" (supplement to the Mishnah) was found in these texts, included among the text on Keilim (vessels). This "Tosefta" is the same text as cited by Rabbi Hertz as his source for the Mishnayot.

We thus have the hiding of the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle of the Lord verified by four separate sources:

1) the Marble Tablets of Beirut,
2) the Copper Scroll,
3) the Tosefta, i.e. ancient sacred texts of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Cairo now at Cambridge University, England, and
4) the Mishnayot of Rabbi Hertz.

Where was the Ark of the Covenant Hidden?

Based on the Mishnayot, Andis Kaulins has developed the theory that the artefacts that were found in the alleged "tomb" of Tutankamun (actually probably the tomb originally intended for Smenkhare, a lesser untimely deceased royal) are in fact many of the objects listed in the Mishnayot, including the Ark of the Covenant and the portable Tabernacle.

See online:

followed by these additional pages
Anubis in the Tomb of Tutankhamun
The Mercy Seat of the Tabernacle
The Consecrated Parts of Aaron (this is ADONAI at the Tabernacle, in our view ADONAI = ATON)
The Lampstand of the Tabernacle
Shrine I the Outer Shrine of the Tabernacle
Shrine II the First Inner Shrine of the Tabernacle
Shrine III the Second Inner Shrine of the Tabernacle
Shrine IV the Innermost Shrine of the Tabernacle (the above 4 large Shrines fit inside one another)
The Golden Shrine of the Psalms for the Golden Ushebtis
The Pectoral Jewels of the Hebrew High Priest Cohen Gadol
The Artists who Made the Ark and the Tabernacle - Bez Alel and Oho Liab
Moses and Exodus - Who was Moses?

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Tuesday, May 11, 2004

Ancient Calendric Stele Newly Discovered in Egypt

Ancient Calendric Stele Newly Discovered in Egypt

An ancient calendric stele dated to 238 B.C. has been discovered in Egypt, according to IOL Scitech Technology at Ancient inscribed slab brought to light. One must wonder, however, why mainstream archaeologists claim that this inscribed slab documents an Egyptian calendar reform which was then only implemented 250 years later by Julius Caesar. Why would anyone inscribe a calendric reform which was also not executed at that time? and why would it be implemented only 2 1/2 centuries later.

In our view, the "inscribed slab" documents a calendar reform actually made - IN EGYPT - at the time of the writing of the inscriptions, as one would expect. See my chronology of the world page where we write: "236 BC Restoration of the Etruscan 'Secular (calendric) Games' in Rome".

The 1440-year Calendric Period (4 x 360 years viz. 3 x 480 years)

What calendric reform is being made? that is the eseence of the issue!

The calendric reform is the "great leap year" adjustment for the passage of 1440 years (4 x 360 viz. 3 x 480 years).

The calendar of Pharaonic Egypt (as also that of the Maya, of China, and the Hindu), as I have discovered and always alleged, began in 3117 BC, when a solar eclipse occurred at sunrise at the Winter Solstice in the the solar boat (solar bark) of Capricorn at the stars Al Giedi (Algiedi) and Nashira, accompanied by the planet Jupiter (hence, Winkin', Blinkin' and Nod in their silvery shoe). This rare and awesome event was used to start humanity's first worldwide calendar at year 0, 3117 BC, even though of course astronomical observation and calendric calculation of some kind will have preceded this event - which may account for the Hebrews calculating their calendar back to allegedly ca. September 1, 3761 BC, which in my opinion looks correctly more like September 25, 3760 BC when there was a close conjunction near the Autumn Equinox of the Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus and Mercury, i.e. the heavenly orbs known to the ancients.

1440 years later was 1677 BC, which was the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period in Egypt.

Calendric Reform began with Khasekhemwy (Khasekhemwi, Chasechemui)

Another 1440 years later (4 x 360 viz. 3 x 480) gives us 237 BC, continuing a tradition established by Khasekhemwy in 2637 BC (2638 BC) of adjusting the calendar every 480 years, which I have long had posted at LexiLine.

The years in the chart below are all adjusted here to reflect the 480-year divisions exactly, whereas actual calendric reform will result in uneven yearly divisions due to overlapping of years, etc.

3117 BC start of the calendar (Egypt, Maya, Hindu - so our opinion)
2637 BC reform of the Calendar by Khasekhemwy for the tropical year
2157 BC First Intermediate Period
1677 BC Second Intermediate Period
1197 BC Rule of King David (Sethos) begins - whence Hall of Records
717 BC Start of the reign of Numa Pompilius, the 1st calendric king of Rome, begins
237 BC Restoration of the Etruscan "Secular (calendric) Games" in Rome - whence the building of Edfu

Ptolemy III Euergetes I and the Temple of Edfu

It was in fact at the time referred to in the newly found inscribed calendric slab that Ptolemy III Euergetes I began the building of the Horus Temple of Edfu (see Dieter Kurth, Edfu, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, 1994 where he gives the date as 237 BC). [I have this book in my own library. One copy of this book was available today at Abe Books.]

In fact, as the mainstream Egyptologists have not recognized, but as we now clearly see, Edfu is a calendric temple marking this calendric reform and the celebration of the passage of 1440 years (4 x 360 years or 3 x 480 years). Note that Ed-fu = Latvian Dievu "belonging to God" which is the same meaning given to "Ed-fu" by the Egyptologists.

Traditionally, it has been thought that the Sothic period of 4 x 365 years - based on the star Sirius - was determinative for adjusting the solar to the tropical year, but as the German Egyptologist Eduard Meyer wrote correctly many years ago, no Egyptian source ties the Sothic Year to Sirius nor to the period of 1460 (or 1440) years. Rather, it is clear in our view that the Papyrus of Ebers adjusted the calendar for Sirius and only Manetho first apparently used the Sothic Period.

Based on the newly discovered stele, we now know that the Pharaonic Egyptian "great leap year" was tied to the Sun (RA) and extended over a period 1440 years.

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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