Sunday, May 10, 2015

Machu Picchu in Peru Marks Stars of Ophiuchus in its Architectural Design Construction as Inca Cosmological Levels: Condor Puma Serpent Heaven Earth Underworld

Machu Picchu in Peru has in modern times advanced to status as one of the world's most famous and important ancient cultural locations.

As we show in our decipherment image below, Machu Picchu marks the stars of Ophiuchus as the head of the mythical Puma of the Inca, with many stars of Ophiuchus marked in the design construction of the site, especially also marking as plazas the open areas of the sky having no visible stars (to the naked eye).

Ground Plan Map of Machu Picchu as a Puma Head
Click the map for a larger image
(This ground map was drawn by us based on various maps online of Machu Picchu,
with the "Puma outline" stemming primarily from the map at the Wikipedia from Holger Behr
and some details amended via maps at
Our map makes no claim to precise accuracy and is shown here for decipherment purposes only.)

Sky Map of Stars of Ophiuchus as Machu Picchu
Click the map for a larger image

When that image of Machu Picchu is turned 90 degrees, its outline has the form of a condor, and that is surely intended, as discussed further below.

It is -- speculatively -- possible to see the horizontal middle of Machu Picchu as a serpent, formed by the sectons along the plazas, thus completing the Inca mythological trio of condor, puma and serpent as the Inca cosmological levels:
  • Condor: Hanan Pacha ("higher world") was the world above in the Sky
    ("Hanan" = "heaven")
  • Puma: Kay Pacha was the world below in which we live, the Earth
    "Kay" = Greek "Gaia", the personification of the Earth
  • Serpent: Uku Pacha ("the lower world") was the Underworld.
We write the following text graphically on our decipherment images above:
"Machu Picchu marks stars of Ophiuchus as the head of the mythical Inca Puma. Machu Picchu turned 90° has the shape of a Condor. Those were independent observations by us, so imagine our astonishment at subsequently reading online at, Machu Picchu: The City of Magic, (, and at ( about the book, The Sacred Valley of the Incas, Myths and Symbols, Sociedad Pacaritanpu Hatha, Cusco, Peru 1996), by Fernando E. and Edgar Elorietta Salazar, which writes that Machu Picchu marked the puma and the condor, with some celestial connections, although the stars of Ophiuchus are not mentioned in this connection and the location of the puma is not identical. Still, the convergence of concepts is spectacular."
"The stars of Ophiuchus are outlined ... by a thick red border drawn by the decipherer to show the similar outline to that of Machu Picchu as representing the mythical Inca Puma. The thick black-lined internal six-sided figure shows the modern lines of Ophiuchus. The thick orange transverse line is the celestial equator ca. 1450 A.D. and marks the main Machu Picchu Temple when Machu Picchu was built. Sigma Ophiuchus at the "eye" of the Puma marks Intihuatana (Inti Watana) as the "hitching post" of the Sun, angled 13° toward Alpha Ophiuchus (Rasalhague) and beyond that toward Vega, suggesting that it marked the Solar Apex (the Apex of the Sun's Way on its galactic orbit). Stars below Eta Ophiuchi (Sabik) are marked by a rock field with similar "figures". Large areas empty of visible stars are represented as plazas at Machu Picchu, and the line of open spaces starting at 1, and then on to 20, 19, 18, and 15 could also be viewed as "segments" marking a celestial serpent in Ophiuchus."
THIS POSTING IS Posting Number 82 of
The Great Mound, Petroglyph and Painted Rock Art Journey of Native America

Machu Picchu in Peru Marks Stars of Ophiuchus in its Architectural Design Construction as Inca Cosmological Levels: Condor Puma Serpent Heaven Earth Underworld

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Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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