Saturday, January 31, 2015

The Wolf Plains Mounds viz. Plains Mounds of Ohio as SE Stars of Draco Near the North Ecliptic Pole

The Wolf Plains Group of Mounds ("The Plains Mounds") of Ohio are located between mounds and earthworks we have previously deciphered as marking stars of Cygnus and stars of Cepheus.

Accordingly, the Wolf Plains Mounds -- if they belonged to that same system of geographic landmarking by astronomy, and in the same era -- must mark stars in between Cygnus and Cepheus, and that is indeed the case.

As demonstrated in the graphic image below, the Wolf Plains Mounds of Ohio marks southeast-located stars of Draco near the North Ecliptic Pole (click the graphic to see the image in optimal, originally large resolution and size):

The darker a black dot marking a star, the brighter the star. In order to show the full matching correspondence of mounds, earthworks and stars, our star magnitude setting includes minor stars that are not necessarily marked on the mounds. We could change the magnitude setting but might then lose a star or two in the image that we hold to be mound-marked. It is a threshold question.

Please note that in this and the previous posting we used a limiting star magnitude of 7.5 in comparing ostensibly visible stars to mounds on earth that represent them. We have sometimes used 8.0 and sometimes much less, if it is enough to show the matching correspondence of stars and earthworks.

Dave Snyder at the University of Michigan in University Lowbrow Astronomers Naked Eye Observer’s Guide writes:
"It is a common misconception that you need to have a telescope to do astronomy; this simply is not true. A wide variety of objects can be seen with the naked eye: from planets and stars, to nebulae and galaxies.... The limiting magnitude at suburban locations is typically 3.5, and the limiting magnitude at dark sites is typically 6.5. Experienced observers at very dark sites have reported limiting magnitudes as high as 8.5."
Several thousand years ago much less light interference existed on Earth for viewing the sky than today. The honed eyes of hunters were surely at optimal vision, so we think that using limiting magnitudes of 7.5 or even 8.0 for stars allegedly seen by the ancients is supportable, although with a limit of 8.0 there are often simply too many stars out there to view and it is difficult to show the star patterns represented by the mounds and earthworks in Native America because too many minor stars also are pictured in the image. The fewer stars and the lower the star magnitude (i.e. the brighter all the stars used) that we need to show a clear matching correspondence, the better it is.

THIS POSTING IS Posting Number 8 of
The Great Mound, Petroglyph and Painted Rock Art Journey of Native America

At the Center of the Ancient Land Navigation System in Native America: The Wolf Plains Mounds viz. Plains Mounds of Ohio as Southeast Stars of Draco Near the North Ecliptic Pole

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Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."