Monday, August 30, 2004

Anthropology - Erroneous Chronology - No Northern Europe Neanderthals

As reported in the Telegraph by Tony Paterson in Berlin
in the August 22, 2004 article

"Neanderthal Man 'never walked in northern Europe'"

the entire dating and modern view of the Stone Age will have to be rewritten due to erroneous dating of skeletons and skulls in Germany.

The dating of many of these ancient skulls and skeletons has recently been checked by the Oxford University carbon dating laboratory and found to be greatly in error. For example, the skeletons at Hahnofersand, near Hamburg, thought up to now to be 36,000 years old are only about 7,500 years old. Other examples are given in the article.

Here again we have evidence that blind - non-critical - adherence to the established chronology and history of mainstream science is just simple idiocy.

Sunday, August 29, 2004

More on Creswell Crags Prehistoric Cave Art

As written in the August 18, 2004 National Geographic article by John Pickrell entitled Unprecedented Ice Age Cave Art Discovered in U.K., researchers are finding more and more ancient carvings at Creswell Crags in Britain.

Recall that we pointed out the importance of Creswell Crags to the prehistoric area in our book, Stars Stones and Scholars, before this cave art was discovered.

Thursday, August 12, 2004

The Law of King Athelstan of England and Ancient Surveying

The Law of King Athelstan of England and Ancient Surveying

King Athelstan was, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the "first West Saxon king to have effective rule over the whole of England".

People wonder that a person trained in law and evidence such as myself is interested in ancient history - but law has a great deal to do with ancient history - and mainstream scholars in the field of ancient history, not being trained in law OR evidence, have really botched it all up terribly. The Tablets of Ebla contain many laws and should not be left to the realm solely of archaeology. The Code of Hammurabi [sic, Hammurabi is a misreading of Abraham, backwards] is a code of laws.

As the Britannica states under Athelstan:
"Six of Athelstan's extant codes of law reveal stern efforts to suppress theft and punish corruption. They are notable in containing provisions intended to comfort the destitute and mitigate the punishment of young offenders. The form and language of his many documents suggest the presence of a corps of skilled clerks and perhaps the beginning of the English civil service."

One of the laws of Athelstan defined the length of the English foot.
As written by Tompkins in the Secrets of the Great Pyramid (p. 344):

"The text of this law is included in the standard collections of medieval English laws. The words of law of Athelstan were repeated exactly in the legislation about measures [i.e. in the sense of weights and measures] issued by King Henry I.... Athelstan prescribed that the king's girth shall extend from the royal residence for a distance of 3 miles, 3 furlongs, 9 acres, 9 feet, 9 palms, and 9 barleycorns. The King's girth was the area considered a direct extension of the King's place of residence and as such the area in which the King's peace was in force. This was the area in which attacks on private persons were crimes against the Crown [we retain this as "refuge" and "sanctuary" in modern times, e.g. people
seeking refuge in embassies or churches]. The picturesque language of the law means that the King's girth extends for a radius of 18,250 feet, since it is a matter of the following units:

.....mile....................5280 feet [x 3]
.....furlong..................600 feet [x 3]
.....acre......................66 feet [x 9]
.....palm......................3/4 foot [lengthwise?] [x 9]
.....barleycorn................1/3 inch [x 9]

... My understanding [this is still Tompkins writing] of the law of King Athelstan is that the radius of the King's girth extended 6 minutes or 1/10 of degree from north to south. This implies that a degree was understood to be 365,000 English feet [note that this was made a multiple of 365], which is the length of the degree at the latitude of towns like Winchester...."


Tompkins then goes to show that this system of geodetic measure - rooted in an ancient measure of the Earth - is remarkably similar to that used in Pharaonic Egypt, a system which was astronomically anchored by the exact measurements made possible by the pyramids.

See http://www.megaliths.net

The Kammrath Globe (Globus)

The Kammrath Globe (Globus)

Ernst Kammrath of Germany has made one of the largest handmade globes in the world and I have devoted a page to him and his world globe at

http://www.megaliths.net/kammrath.htm

This is great "handiwork" and is a possible project for school children - something sensible!

Cala Gonone Sardinia Cupmarks

Cala Gonone Sardinia Cupmarks

The LexiLine files at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files
in the folder for Sardinia contain

calagono.tif and calagono.gif

which show that the cupmarks found at Cala Gonone (on your maps near Dorgali)
(thanks to photographs sent to me by Enrico Calzolari)
represent Ursa Minor,
which is also what Nuraghi Arvu represents.

This fits well since Cala Gonone
is betweeen Mamoiada (the Pole) on Sardinia
and La Spezia in Italy which represents Cassiopeia.
For a map see http://www.megaliths.net
under Italy.

Pignone, Italy and Cheops

Pignone, Italy and Cheops

The files

pignone.tig and pignone.gif

are found in the Italy folder at the LexiLine files at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

and show a megalithic rock formation sent to me by Enrico Calzolari
in Italy.

Pignone is a megalithic site which I show in the above drawings to be
two heads to either side of the Milky Way to the right of Cassiopeia
and Cepheus.

This representation is the same in principle for this general part of the heavens as the megalithic wall possibly discovered in the Cheops Pyramid,
where the comparable part of the heavens is shown as two opposing heads of the pharaoh with the two crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt.

Ancient Inventions of the Ukraine

Ancient Inventions of the Ukraine

Here is a very fine page on the ancient Ukraine called
Ancient Inventions of Ukraine
by
Andrew Gregorovich
at
http://www.infoukes.com/history/inventions/

As Gregorovich writes
"The Ancient World created many of the inventions which have
contributed to the progress of civilization. Among these are a
number which originated in Ukraine. Some of these are noted in a new
book Ancient Inventions, by Peter James and Nick Thorpe (New York:
Ballantine Books, 1994). In this book review we would like to focus
on these inventions which originated in Ukraine according to James
and Thorpe and include some additional items they missed."

Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Mitochondrial Mutation Rate and Ancient Cultures

Mitochondrial Mutation Rate and Ancient Cultures

That the mitochondrial mutation rate (set at about 1 mutation in 600
generations) is likely much higher than assumed by Sykes can be seen
at the site of The Molecular History Research Center at
http://www.mhrc.net/mitochondria.htm
and
http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/realeve/ask/ask_04.html

Some studies have shown a mutation rate of 1 in about 40
generations, see e.g.
http://www.ridgenet.net/~do_while/sage/v2i6n.htm

Sykes places Ursula at 40,000 BC in Greece whereas the oldest
archaeological records of first humans in Greece would seem to be
about 20000 BC as at Franchthi, Greece - see
http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/archaeology/sites/europe/franchthicave.html
so that a good argument could be made that all of Sykes dates should
at least be halved.

If one does so then the dates correspond better with the dating of
archaeological finds in the respective regions.

Xenia at 24,000 years ago would more correctly be ca. 12,000 years ago, a date also
assigned by the linguists to the spread of Indo-European from this
central European region and close to the Mesolithic skulls found in Eastern Europe
dating to ca. 8000 BC.

Helena in France at 20,000 years ago would be ca. 10,000 years ago
and thus near the date of 9000 BC I assign to the astronomical
paintings at Lascaux.

Velda in Spain at 17,000 years would be in the same chronological
ball park at ca. 9000 BC for the Altamira cave paintings near
Santander.

The Seven Daughters of Eve and Maternal Mitochondrial DNA

The Seven Daughters of Eve and Maternal Mitochondrial DNA

The Seven Daughters of Eve by Bryan Sykes (Bantam Press, Corgi
Books, ISBN 0-552-14876-8) is recommended as a good read for
everyone although one should also be aware of such strong criticism of the
book as found at
http://www.britarch.ac.uk/ba/ba66/book.shtml
a criticism which in its diffuse "science-pretentious" jargonism is
worse than anything which is being criticized.

That book review exemplifies a regrettable misunderstanding in university education which presumes that learning or writing "big words" like "phylogeneticist" or using empty meaningless catch phrases such as "'African replacement model' versus the multiregional hypothesis" makes one a scientist.

On the contrary, it just confuses the issue because everyone then
concentrates on the interpretation of such idiotic man-made catch
phrases rather than on the actual EVIDENCE as such. Hence, the book
review is a criticism of style - not of content. Unfortunate.

MATERNAL MITOCHONDRIAL DNA

In his book Sykes gives a popular synopsis of modern genetic
maternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) results for human populations,
explaining that 95% of all Europeans can trace their origins back to
only seven women in prehistoric days and showing that nearly all
peoples of the world can trace their origins back to ca. 33 women -
though I think the most recent estimate is ca. 36 women, and some
even say there are 22 ancient "clans" for Europe. It just depends on
where you put the dividing lines. And as Sykes writes, new evidence
will surely change these numbers. Nevertheless, the point is that we
all go back to common ancestors, and not so long ago.

Sykes writes that these seven daughters can allegedly be "dated"
chronologically and "located" geographically. They allegedly did not
all live at the same time, based on mutational algorithms for DNA -
where the mutational timeline used by Sykes is disputed. I
personally think the mutations involved are more recent than
currently assumed, but I am sure that the chronologies will get
better as more genetic evidence comes in.

GENETICS and MAINSTREAM HISTORY

Although there is no doubt from the genetic evidence that man's
origins are in Africa, the genetic evidence paints a different
picture for Europe than that we are accustomed to reading in our
history books.

To make these seven daughters of Eve easier to remember, Sykes has
given them individual names - and here they are, with their alleged
date, alleged location, and percentage of today's European
population:

HUNTERS AND GATHERERS (6 daughters)
Ursula - allegedly 45,000 years ago - Greece, 11% (especially
prominent today in western Britain and Scandinavia)
Xenia - allegedly 25,000 years ago - between the Black Sea and
Caspian Sea, Ukraine, 6% (mostly Eastern Europe)
Helena - allegedly 20,000 years ago - Southern France, Dordogne,
Lascaux, 47% (continental Europe)
Velda - allegedly 17,000 years ago - northern Spain, Cantabria,
Santander, Altamira, 5% (one group allegedly went north as the Saami
of Finland and northern Norway)
Tara - allegedly 17,000 years ago - Tuscany, northwest Italy, La
Spezia, 9% (Mediterranean, western edge of Europe, particularly
numerous in the west of Britain and in Ireland
Katrine - allegedly 15,000 years ago - Venice, northeast Italy, 6%
(Italy, Mediterranean)

THE FARMERS (AGRICULTURALISTS) (1 daughter)
Jasmine - allegedly 10,000 years ago - Near East - 17%, Sykes writes
"One distinctive branch follows the Mediterranean coast to Spain and Portugal, whence it has found its way to the west of Britain where
it is particularly common in Cornwall, Wales and the west of
Scotland. The other branch shadows a route through central Europe
taken by the farmers who first cultivated the fertile river valleys
and then the plains of northern Europe. Both branches live, even
now, close to the routes mapped out by their farming ancestors as
they made their way gradually into Europe from the Near East."


Of course each of these seven is also related to each other,
as Sykes writes: "The clans of Helena and Velda are close to one another. They share a common ancestor.... Jasmine and Tara also have
a common ancestor, as do Ursula and Katrine...."


Sykes data, however, show some weaknesses either in analysis of the
evidence or in chronological errors relating to interpretation of
the genetic timeline of the data (this dating is made on mutational
timeline assumptions which may not be accurate).

As Sykes states, "the common ancestor of all Europeans"... is near to where the Xenia branch leads off from the rest of the daughters."
He continues: "Through this woman [one mutational ancestor prior to Xenia] the whole of Europe is joined to the rest of the world." That
is a very significant statement.

If that is so, then the age of 25,000 years to Xenia is misleading
since in terms of mutations, Xenia is only one ancestral DNA
mutation removed from a "mother" who is connected to all the rest of
the people of the world, not just the Europeans. By the same token,
Helena and Velda are 3 mutations removed from that woman, Tara and
Jasmine are also 3 mutations removed from that woman and Ursula and
Katrine are also 3 mutations removed from that woman. Since all six
of these daughters are 3 mutations removed, all of these daughters
once surely comprised one group at the same time and place.


East Europeans are Older

This may look like nitpicking, but it is crucial to the issue of who
was where when first. If Xenia is closest (only 1 DNA mutation) to
the rest of the peoples of the world, then Xenia (the Europeans of
Eastern Europe) represent the "older" DNA form - whereas all the
other six daughters of Eve, being 3 mutations removed, are "younger"
DNA forms, and that is really nothing new,.

By correcting the position of Xenia, things begin to make sense,
also in terms of linguistic analysis of Indo-European language.

Looked at in this manner, Syke's genetic data are to some degree
just a modern repeat of what we already know from previous blood
type distribution analysis at
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi23.htm

Genetic DNA and Ancient Seafarers - Argonauts?

Genetic DNA and Ancient Seafarers - Argonauts?

I finally got around to reading The Seven Daughters of Eve (Bantam
Press, Corgi Books, ISBN 0-552-14876-8) by Bryan Sykes, showing how
all the peoples of Europe can be traced back by DNA genetics to
seven specific and geographically identifiable ancient mitochondrial
DNA "mothers" as it were - and also indicating that all the peoples
of the world can be traced back to about only 36 such mothers not too far
back in prehistorical days.

95% of European mitochondrial DNA traces back to "the seven
daughters of eve". Many departures from the norm are explainable -
some are more difficult.

Sykes has several examples of mitochondrial DNA sequences which are
quite unusual - pointing - in my opinion - to ancient connections of
peoples by way of the sea:

1. an Edinburgh schoolteacher with clear Scottish ancestry traceable
back 200 years nevertheless has Polynesian mitochondrial DNA...as
Sykes writes "is she perhaps the descendant of a Tahitian princess
who fell in love with a handsome ship's captain...?"

2. Sykes writes: "There are many other equally mysterious journeys recorded in our DNA: the Korean sequence that turns up regularly
[note that word "regularly"] in fishermen from Norway and northern
Scotland; the unmistakably African DNA in a dairy farmer from
Somerset...; the [mitochondrial] sequence of a book salesman from
Manchester that is so unusual that his closest match is found among
the native Australians of Queensland...."


3. Sykes refers to two fishermen on a small island off the west
coast of Scotland who show quite unusual mitochondrial sequences,
which Sykes describes as follows: (p. 358)

"One outstanding genetic journey involves a complete
circumnavigation of the world.
Two fishermen on a small island off
the west coast of Scotland have unusual mitochondrial sequences...we
[found] matches ... one in Portugal and one in Finland. These were
still unusual sequences to find in Europe, not part of the seven
original [European] clans. The Portuguese sequence matched several
from South America, and the Finnish DNA was close to sequences found
in Siberia, where we also found the ancestral sequence of the South
Americans. So the two fishermen were indeed related - but only
through a common ancestor from Siberia. One line of maternal
ancestors had travelled from Siberia along the coast of the Arctic
Ocean to Scandinavia, then on to the west of Scotland, perhaps
aboard a Viking ship. The other had crossed into America over the
Bering Straits, then down to Brazil. At some time, presumably after
Brazil became a Portuguese colony, a woman carrying this piece of
DNA crossed the Atlantic to Portugal, from where, somehow, it had
found its way up the Atlantic coast to the west of Scotland. The two
journeys had ended on the same small island after travelling in
opposite directions from the other side of the world."


As you can see, Sykes has to presume a whole series of unusual and
unconvincing ancient events to explain the factual data. Of course,
the Scottish sequences are much more easily explained by presuming
only one event - that some of the ancient Argonauts brought some
women from abroad (Siberia, Korea, South America, Polynesia) with
them upon returning to their point of origin ca. 3000 BC. Note how
the unusual DNA sequences concentrate on Norway and northern
Scotland particularly and seem to concentrate on fishermen, many of
whom trace their ancestry back to generations of ancient seafarers.

I think as more DNA research worldwide is done, we will in fact be
able to trace the ancient voyage of the legendary Argonauts quite accurately
through the traces of DNA they left behind - also in distant lands.

Peterborough Petroglyphs - Decipherment - More Detail

Peterborough Petroglyphs - Decipherment - More Detail
see also http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

Do All Glyphs represent Stars?

I think most of the glyphs (300 clearly redrawable and ca. 600 vague
ones) represent stars.

Some of the rock art figures do not represent stars but are in my
opinion clearly symbols of the so-called Tifinag script. The Ojibwa
Algonkians also had a symbolic script.


How old is the site?


Found at the site also were 30 gneiss hammer-stones (ca. 2 pounds
each) used for carving. NOTHING ELSE at the site has been found from
the original era except for some small pieces of clay pottery which
could have been put there at any time. On the other hand, small
stones with an origin in this Great Lakes region were found at the
Miami Circle in Florida (see the LexiLine files) – a site which I
date to ca. 3117 BC.

Modern experiments have shown that a smaller glyph could be pecked
out of the limestone in about 30 minutes - so that the makers of the
petroglyphs did not have to stay long to finish their work, although
perhaps half-a-day's work might be required for some of the larger
figures. (but they may also have used copper – see below)
Material in quotes from the Vastokas book. The Sacred
Art of the Algonkians: A Study of the Peterborough Petroglyphs by
Joan M. Vastokas and Romas K. Vastokas, Mansard Press, P.O. Box 443,
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, K9J 6Z3


The rock exposure for the glyphs is "roughly rectangular and is
sectioned by several fissures, seams, and a series of pits."


The "north half of the decorated surface is divided by a deep
fissure, almost a foot wide, at the bottom of which runs an
intermittent underground stream [this in my analysis represents the
St. Lawrence Seaway]. Several other narrower fissures and seams
subdivide the surface into smaller panels within which are contained
the engraved figures."


"One remarkable [neighboring] Archaic site, east of [Algonkian
Park], on Allumette Island in the Ottawa River, has a radiocarbon
date of fifty-two hundred years ago and has yielded over a thousand
copper artifacts."..."


One site nearer to the petroglyphs [a so-called Laurentian hunter
site] about 2 and 1/2 miles SE at the mouth of Jack Creek produced
finds dating to ca. 5000 years ago."

These will be our ancient Peterborough stonemasons.

These sites would put our Peterborough petroglyph makers around 3117
BC.

Vastokas conclude the petroglyphs date to 900 to 1400 AD. This of
course is wrong. Virtually NOTHING at all supports that date. Quite
the contrary, "It seems that the very deep glyphs were engraved over
eroded or shallower earlier forms."


The map on page 28 of Vastokas book shows a map of the distribution
of Algonkian language speakers in North America - and this pretty
much corresponds to the map formed by the rock drawing - it is
again, as we know from the megaliths, a map defining territorial
borders. As Vastokas write "... the Peterborough Petroglyph site
would have been situated at the borderline between Algonkian and
Iroquoian territory."


Colors in my Peterborough Petroglyphs Decipherment Drawing

I have added the colors to my rough redrawing of the map to show
possible divisions and to much better show the glyphs - black on
white is harder to distinguish - otherwise the
original map is simply black and white. "The rock is white
crystalline limestone, ground smooth and flat by the ice of the last
ice age."
To get good contrast, the Vastokas darkened figures with
black chalk or crayon for purposes of photography.

My added colors are intended to show more clearly the demarcations
on the rock drawing on the ground. As one can see, the map is
divided - as I view it - into two halves left and right with a
middle section of creation at Hydrus - which I imagine was regarded
to be the fountain of the deep, and also two halves north and south,
with the St. Lawrence being the dividing line. In Algonkian belief
Midewiwin (viz. Midewegan – location of the first Midewiwin
"lodge", i.e. house) - the "hole in the sky" at the center of the
universe between the earth and sky – is born in the bowels of the earth
and then rises – we see this hole in the sky at Peterborough. The
Algonkian cosmic axis runs along the upward-growing cedar tree –
i.e. the Norse Irminsul – which is also pictured at Peterborough.
The Ojibwa also had Midewiwin bark scrolls and Mide songs, used as
mnemonic devices. The head of the figure I identify as the pole star
has twelve spokes as hairs on its head – the division of the
zodiac into twelve regions. This figure is erroneously identified by the
Vastokas as a "sun-figure" or "the Great Spirit".

The blue color enables easier location of the St. Lawrence Seaway
and Chesapeake Bay (I forgot to mark this latter on my map drawing,
but see if you can find it in the blue region), I made this portion
blue, but of course the blue is not all water - and I do not know
how far the rock drawing viz. rock actually extends beyond the
Vastokas map. The original map color is black and white. I have
added the color for easier identification.

The orange color marks deep - in part man-made, in
part natural - fissures cut into the original rock - deep ridges which
no one has been able to explain up to now.

Geographic features

It is clear that Peterborough near Stony Lake
was near a major prehistoric artery of communication and travel (so
Champlain in describing Huron trails in 1615), being on a waterway
connecting Georgian Bay and the Bay of Quinte.

Previous Astronomical Explanations

The Vastokas book has some general reference to alleged "solar
symbols" on the map e.g., for the two major symbols in the center of
the rock drawing. Of course, that is completely wrong. This is the
NIGHT sky.

Did Native Americans Draw the Peterborough Petroglyphs?

Interestingly, the regional native American Indians had NO KNOWLEDGE
of this rock drawing - either in person, legend or ancient written
records - prior to its discovery in the modern era. If this had been
a sacred native American Indian site, that would be quite strange.
It actually looks as if the rock drawings were once made by someone
long ago - as I allege, by people not from that region - and then
left there for posterity to discover.

The site was only discovered in the year 1954 by mining company
employees.

Moreover, as the Vastokas note, some of the glyphs are quite unique
to North America - but as I might add - find comparables in the Old
World.

The Vastokas allege in the introduction that "external and
internal evidence will readily show that the Peterborough
Petroglyphs were carved by native Canadians before the coming of the
Europeans to southern Ontario. Less easily determined, however,
are ... which particular Indian group made them, when, and to what
purpose."
The fact is, there is NO external or internal evidence
at all that some aboriginal Canadians ever made the petroglyphs and as Vastokas
subsequently admit "Reconstruction of the meaning behind prehistoric forms of art ... is a difficult task, and in no small danger of
erroneous conclusions."


Vastokas write, "There is nothing on the site... to suggest
European contact".
This of course is not true. All one has to do is
to compare some of the rock drawings on this site with those found
in Norway and Sweden which the Vastokas do - e.g. the boats at
page 123 – only to conclude - surprisingly, ignoring the obvious - that "there is no need for
comparison"
, in spite of the fact that these boats look Scandinavian to almost
everyone and surely not like canoes. This impossible mainstream blindness to
early European contact to the Americas is widespread among mainstream scholars.

Peterborough Petroglyphs Canada

Peterborough Petroglpyhs Canada

I have been successful in deciphering the Peterborough
Petroglyphs in entirety as a geodetic astronomical planisphere.

The decipherment is found as

peterborough.tif - excellent quality picture
and
peterborough.gif - rather poor quality but less memory required and
less download time

at the LexiLine Files in the folder for Canada at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

These petroglyphs are spectacular and contain an ancient map of the
north of North America, surveyed by astronomy, and clearly showing
the St. Lawrence Seaway, for example, as well as Chesapeake Bay and
the Potomac.

My rather rough drawing of the Peterborough Petroglyphs is based on
a very large drawing found in the back map pocket of the The Sacred
Art of the Algonkians: A Study of the Peterborough Petroglyphs
by
Joan M. Vastokas and Romas K. Vastokas, Mansard Press, P.O. Box 443,
Peterborough, Ontario, Canada, K9J 6Z3, a book which cost me a
fortune to buy used, but it was worth the Vastokas map of the glyphs.

Of course, the Vastokas had no idea that the petroglpyhs were an
ancient geodetic map surveyed by the stars - including the southern
stars, and their analysis is confined to the normal ethnological
remarks about signs and symbols, but the making of the map was a
gargantuan task which the Vastokas did beautifully.

Also spectacular at Peterborough is the presence of four signs on
the glyph "possibly" reading GNOMON and these four signs are the same as those
found for the identical astronomical positon at Lewes, England. We
thus have a possible speculative connection of the Peterborough
Petroglyphs to the megalithic peoples of Ancient Britain (and surely
the Baltic and Scandinavia), so that I date this map to ca. 3117 BC,
as all neolithic megalithic sites seem to stem from approximately
that era.

Tavarone Liguria Tramonti Italy

Tavarone Liguria Tramonti Italy

Megalithic decipherment files as follows are found in the folder for Italy at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

Tavarone 1 - Lunigiana Aulla near La Spezia - Cepheus Cassiopeia
Cygnus Pegasus Pisces Aries Triangulum Lacerta Aquarius Cetus
tavarone.gif
tavarone.tif

Tavarone 2 - Lunigiana - Cassiopeia etc. Map of Europe North America
tavaron2.gif
tavaron2.tif

Tramonti Stone Campiglia Liguria - Cepheus Cassiopeia
tramonti.gif
tramonti.tif

Megaliths of Continental Europe

Megaliths of Continental Europe

Maps of my decipherment of the megaliths of
Germany and Italy are found in two directories, Germany and Italy
at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

Since these graphics are in color, the .gifs are of poorer quality,
so please look at the .tifs for quality versions of each picture.
The files are

germany.gif
and
germany.tif
and

italy.gif
and
italy.tif
[.tifs are viewable e.g. with QuickTime]

Please be aware that these decipherments are pioneering efforts and
that there is not the certainty here that exists for my decipherment
of Scotland and England, which I consider to be quite accurate.
Fixed island systems are easier than the continent, where borders
could theoretically have been set just about anywhere in ancient
days. In addition, the sites in Ancient Britain have been far better
maintained than elsewhere.

GERMANY

Germany shows clear evidence of a large system of geodetic
astronomical measure.

One system is a larger territory with the center at the Externsteine
(southeast of Bielefeld on your maps), with the Gollenstein in
Saarland (near Blieskastel) as Hydra in the South and the
Schalenstein in Schleswig-Holstein (near Bunsoh and Albersdorf) as
Scorpio in the North. These two identifications are quite clear. The
rest of the sites then can be fitted into this system. This system
e.g. seems to show the ancient border between the Germanic speakers
and French speakers to have run through the middle of Belgium -
where the site of Weris marks Virgo - but this result must
be regarded as provisional, since there are still many, many sites
in continental Europe and Germany to be examined. I have certain
identification of only a few of these.

ITALY

Italy has been a tough nut to crack, in spite of the fact that
Enrico Calzolari - with whom I regularly correspond - some years ago
established that megaliths in the La Spezia area of Liguria, Italy
seemed to represent the shape of Cassiopeia (see the corresponding
LexiLine page). This proved a difficult clue, until I added sites on
Corsica (as the phallic North Ecliptic Pole - i.e. the point of
creation of the sky) and Sardinia (the Pole Star) to the picture.
Then continental Italy fell into place as being marked primarily by
the constellations along the Milky Way, represented by the
APPENNINES (= Latvian PIENU celsh = "Milky Way").

The Chianca Dolmen and megalithic sites in the region of Bisceglie
and Molfetta as marking Canis Major (CHIANCA = CANIS) I regard to be
solid. The same is true for Cassiopeia and the sites around La
Spezia.

Also solid in my opinon is Paestum (ancient Poseidonia, south of
Naples, Ischia and Capri) which according to local legend was built
by Jason and the Argonauts. I can confirm - based on my analysis of
megalithic sites - that this legend is true. Neolithic artifacts
have been found in this region. This region (Basilicata as a
province) represents the hole in the Milky Way to the left of Sirius
which the ancients regarded as the Cosmic Egg, for which reason this
site is associated with fertility. It is comparable to the
astronomical position of "the Face" in the constellational system in
evidence at Kents Cavern in England. We also see this same Cosmic Egg in the
Planisphere from the White sea.

Still, my identifications of regions (provinces) of Italy with
constellations is in part based on the alleged system found and not
solely through concrete megalithic sites which I have deciphered.

For example, I first predicted - based on the system found - that
the Italian province Piedmont must have represented Cygnus - and
then found only later at La Bessa (a gigantic site which I decipher
as a vast earthworked mural and which I did not even know existed
previously) that this might be true. The same holds for the
identification of La Marche as the Pleiades. The name fits to
ancient names for the Pleiades and there are Neolithic caves there,
but I have found nothing megalithic yet with the Pleiades depicted.
I presume the caves will ultimately give us an answer.

I will be referring to many files in the future showing decipherments
of various sites in Germany and Italy. There may be corrections and
additions in the course of time, so do not regard my decipherments
of Germany and Italy as final in any way. All of my work is just the
beginning of a very long journey back into time - we are the first
moderns to make this journey.

BELGIUM, NETHERLANDS, LUXEMBOURG = BENELUX

The ancient site of Weris in Belgium (ca. 3000 BC) will
also be presented in the future. There will also be
interesting material relating to Luxembourg: a gigantic stone in
Germany at Niederburg (Bollendorf) and the Ferschweiler Plateau,
marking the ancient border to Luxembourg. The Netherlands also have
many megaliths to examine.

I could use a staff of about 100 and a budget of many millions of
dollars a year to do this work properly. Any sponsors out there? :-)

Tregiffian Crux Southern Cross

Tregiffian Crux Southern Cross

The decipherment for Tregiffian has been corrected - this should be
Crux, the Southern Cross, at the Hole (Cave) in the Milky Way at
this point just below Centaurus.

Accordingly, the overall view for England Southwest - Cornwall - has
also been corrected.

The new files are

tregiff.gif and tregiff.tif

and

engswest.gif and engswest.tif

at

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

Mulfra Quoit Cornwall Southern Pleiades

Mulfra Quoit Cornwall Southern Pleiades

THE MULFRA QUOIT in CORNWALL

I previously identified Mulfra Quoit as
having megaliths representing
CENTAURUS - the left stars (kappa, eta, chi, etc.)
and LUPUS - the central stars (alpha, beta, etc.)

As I have now discovered, MULfra = Southern Pleiades,
much as the similarly named MUL.MUL
were the northern Pleiades in ancient Mesopotamia.

Richard Hinckley Allen in his book, Star Names, Dover Publications, N.Y. 1997,
reports of ancient legends that the southern stars were initially
created by ancient seafarers to approximate the shape of Northern
constellations in similar positions. Allen writes (p. 436) as
follows:

********** start quoted material **********

"Before the observations of the navigators of the 15th and 16th
centuries the singular belief prevailed that the southern heavens
contained a constellation near the pole similar to our Bear or Wain;
indeed it is said to have been represented on an early map or globe.
Manilus wrote:

'The lower Pole resemblance bears To this Above, and shines with
equal stars; With Bears averse, round which the Draco twines;'

and Al Biruni repeated the Sanskrit legend that at one time in the
history of the Creation an attempt was made by Visvamitra [Latvian
vis- "all" plus mitra as in meter "measure(r)"] to form a southern
heavenly home for the body of the dead king, the pious Somadatta;
and this work was not abandoned till a southern pole and another
Bear had been located in positions corresponding to the northern,
this pole passing through the island Lunka, or Vadavamukha (Ceylon).
[AK: not Ceylon but Boötes is intended since Vadava-mukha is
comparable to Latvian Vadava Muizha "house of Vadav (IMO the starry
messenger, which is Boötes.]] The Anglo-Saxon Manual made distinct
mention of this duplicate constellation 'which we can never see.'...

And, quoting from Francisco Lopes of 1552: [AK: the spelling is
original!]
'Abowt the poynt of the Southe or pole Antartike, they sawe a lyttle
whyte cloude and foure stars lyke unto a crosse with three other
joynynge thereunto, which resemble oure Septentrion, and are judged
to bee the signes or tokens of the south exeltree of heaven.'

What is referred to here is not known, for although the figure
represented is that of the Southern Cross this constellation always
is upright when on the meridian, and, as the observation was made in
latitude 14° or 15°, its base star was plainly visible."


********** end quoted material **********

MULFRA solves the issue of how the ancients mapped the southern
skies on the basis of Northern constellational models.

The Mulfra Quoit represents
the stars at the left of the Centaur, Centaurus,
as well as
the central stars of the constellation Lupus below them
at their hermetic earthly location in Penwith, Cornwall.
This is actually the position at which Lupus and Centaurus "join".

MUL.MUL was an ancient Mesopotamian name for the northern Pleiades,
so that MULFRA (MUL plus FRA) - for ancient heavenly chartmakers -
represented that portion of the sky in the southern hemisphere seen
as the "southern Pleiades" - due to their similar form to the
northern Pleiades.
To see that similar form
see http://www.megaliths.co.uk/mulfra.htm

Such "southern Pleiades" are supported in Richard Hinckley Allen,
Star Names, Dover Publications, N.Y., 1963, ISBN 0-486-21079-0, p.
104, where the position of MUFRID is disputed in Boötes, but of
course, we now see that it applied to Centaurus and Lupus directly
below it,
so that MULFRA = MUFRID.

This puts the Southern Pleiades exactly opposite, 180 degrees from
the Northern Pleiades.

Similarly, then, Triangulum Australis (the Southern Triangle)
corresponds to the northern Triangulum across the way.

The Wain of the North, Ursa Major, or the Big Dipper, then finds its
comparable in HORologium, and the Sanskrit legend noted by Allen
identifies the King Visvamitra as KING HOR-AHA viz. KING ORRY viz.
KING ARTHUR, who as we have reported at
http://www.megaliths.co.uk/walesagt.htm
was buried on the Isle of Man, which represents Corona Australis,
i.e. Crown (King) of the Southern Skies.
This too fits the legend of Somadatta.

The major constellations of the southern skies had their
comparable models in the northern skies.

Stonehenge Megaliths II

Stonehenge Megaliths II

The LexiLine Files at

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

contain the following files:

stonview.gif - Stonehenge Megalith Overview
sa213029.gif - Sarsens 2, 1, 30, 29
sar76543.gif - Sarsens 7, 6, 5, 4, 3
sarsen3.gif - Sarsen 3 front and back
sarsen4.gif - Sarsen 4 close-up of face
sars2122.gif - Sarsens 21 and 22
sars2728.gif - Sarsens 27 and 28
sarb2829.gif - Sarsens 28, 29 backsides
tril5354.gif - Trilithons 53 and 54
trilit56.gif - Trilithon 56
tril5758.gif - Trilithons 57 and 58

The Stonehenge megaliths not specifically listed above
are identified at the overview graphic

stonview.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

Essentially, the uploaded files show the following identifications,
as one can see at stonview.gif, starting at the front middle and
moving left in a circle:
(S = Sarsen and T = Trilithon)

T54 = Top stars of Scorpio
T53 = Back stars of Scorpio
Large Fallen Trilithon = Sagittarius
T56 = Capricorn
S16 = Aquarius
T57 = Andromeda and Cassiopeia (Pisces)
T58 = Triangulum and Aries
T60 = Taurus
S28 = Auriga, Orion (back side points to Serpens Caput)
S29 = Canis Major (Gemini)
S30 = Cancer
S1 and S2 = Hydra
T52 = Boötes
T51 = Virgo and Coma Berenices
S3 = Ursa Major (back side points to Cygnus and Aquila)
S4 = Leo
S5 = Corvus
S6 = Virgo
S7 = Boötes
S10 = Corona Borealis
S11 = Serpens Caput

Stonehenge I

Stonehenge Megaliths 1

Millions of people have seen Stonehenge, either in person or on
television and many millions more have taken photographs. Indeed,
many tavelers have photos of Stonehenge at home from
an English vacation. You are in for a surprise - look at them again.

Although we all have seen the "stones" pictured sometime and
somewhere, we have not really looked closely at the
exact "megaliths". Rather, we just see the "stone circle", much like a
popular book about megaliths by the same title, which does not get
beyond the stone circles.

The fact is that the Megaliths of Stonehenge
- as all megaliths - are also carved into various forms and, more
importantly, contain cup marks and holes representing specific stars
in the heavens, many of which (but certainly not all) can still be
CLEARLY identified today.

The following files can be found in the folder on Ancient Britainat at the LexiLine files online at:
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

OVERVIEW GRAPHICS of STONEHENGE GROUND PLAN

Two files are OVERVIEW files of the Stonehenge ground plan,
as shown in my interpretation. These are:

stonehengecircles.gif
stonehengecircle.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

Some of the larger figures (such as the serpent and the outlying
Scorpio and Sagittarius) that I have been able to identify on that
plan from various photographs are still very speculative, barring
substantiation by others, but I include them in case others see something similar.

The larger overview of the Stonehenge Barrows is found at

stnhgbr2.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

SARSENS, TRILITHONS, LENTILS

After the ground plan, we start with the sarsens (outer ring of (30)
large megaliths - sarsens also spelled sarcens), trilithons (inner ring of
(10) large megaliths) and lentils (top flat stones connecting two
sarsens or trilithons) and show how these mark certain stars in the
heavens. Obviously, and as we shall see, cupmarks on the top lentils
mark stars closer to the pole star.

The outer 30 SAR-SEN-S are the MOON STATIONS or LUNAR MANSIONS,
Sarsen IMO (in my opinion) being a word taken from Indo-European
e.g. Latvian ZAR "branch, division" and SIENa "wall",
i.e. "demarcation".

The inner horseshoe-shape of 10 TRILITHONS ("three
stones, i.e. 2 trilithons plus lentil") in 5 pairs marks the Zodiac
with Hydra/Leo and Cancer not represented by a pair of trilithons,
so that the horseshoe of 10 stones reaches out toward the "ends" of
the Milky Way.

This is that section of the Milky Way with a break in it, which is
marked by the sky section from Cancer and the head of Hydra to the
tail of Hydra.

CHRONOLOGY

The markings on the Stonehenge Megaliths date the largest stone
circles of Stonehenge to 1749 BC, resolving the issue of the dating
of the megaliths of Stonehenge. The date 1749 BC is two periods of
684 years after 3117 BC, which as I have long claimed, was the start
of the "modern civilized calendar".

Recall, 684 years was a Kingdom, calculated mathematically by taking
the length of a Saros Cycle of 18 years multiplied by the length of
a Metonic Cycle of 19 years multiplied by 2, giving a very good long-
term eclipse cycle.

As for the dating, this confirms the mainstreamers, as Gerald S.
Hawkins writes in Stonehenge Decoded, Doubleday, 1965:

"both Avebury phases were probably contemporary with the Stonehenge building. Broken bits of pottery found in excavations at the site and two
Beaker graves found at the bases of stones of the Avebury-Sanctuary
avenue indicate that this tremendous structure was erected about
1750 B.C."


My interpretations of Stonehenge by astronomy date the large
megaliths at Stonehenge to 1749 BC.

THE HEEL STONE

uploaded as
heelstone.gif
heelstn2.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

We can easily determine this date from the stars marked on the Heel
Stone, which marks the Summer Solstice in 1749 BC.

The Left Side of the Heel Stone marks Gemini and Orion.
The Right Side of the Heel Stone marks Ursa Major, Leo, Cancer and
Hydra.

In other words, the Summer Solstice is in-between the two sides and
the Heel Stone "tilts" because Gemini tilts over the Summer Solstice
point in the heavens at 1749 BC, but not quite to it, accounting for the
markings on the ground to its left at Stonehenge. The scholars are
in error in thinking the Heel Stone originally stood upright. The
tilt was intended.

SLAUGHTER STONE
The Slaughter Stone, of which, however, I have no really good photo,
so this identification is provisional, seems to show Ursa Minor (the
heavenly axe) - but it could be Ursa Major. When I get a good photo,
this issue will be resolved.

uploaded as
slaughst.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

TRILITHONS
The megaliths of Stonehenge are numbered by convention and you see
this numbering at

stonehengecircle.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

Two of the stones and especially the lentil were easy to identify.
These are:

TRILITHON 57 TRILITHON 58 and LENTIL
Trilithon 57 marks Cassiopeia and Andromeda.
Trilithon 58 marks Triangulum and Aries.
The Lentil above them and joining them marks Ursa Minor and Cepheus.
That very well marks that portion of the heavens.

This is shown at the uploaded file:

tril5758.gif
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/

More about Stonehenge in the next posting.

Northumberland Rock Drawings Deciphered

Northumberland Rock Drawings Deciphered

Decipherments of two rock drawings in Northumberland are found at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

1. Northumberland Rock Drawing - Centaurus Crux Musca Triangulum
Australe
weetwood.tif
weetwood.gif


2. Northumberland Rock Drawing - Large Magellanic Cloud Volans
Reticulum Carina Horologium Chamaeleon
lillburn.gif
lillburn.tif

The gifs and tifs are identical expect for quality, where the
tif. format is usually better for files with a lot of text.

The above decipherments fit into the system of ancient astronmical geodetcs presented at:

http://www.megaliths.net
http://www.starsstonesscholars.com

TimeLine of the World based on Astronomy

TimeLine of the World based on Astronomy

LexiLine.com has now been completely revised and updated and
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi760.htm
presents what I consider to be the most accurate ancient
chronology of the ancient world yet produced, based in large part on
astronomical calibration of ancient landmark dates.
However, this is only MY opinion.

This chronology should not be regarded as infallible, and small
corrections will surely be made in future time, but I will allege
here that the other chronologies out there, especially those of
mainstream scholars, are far more off the mark and are based on
spurious, far less reliable evidence.

Also check out
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexikwik.htm
which gives you a quick overview of the major pages.

MUL.APIN - Decipherment as Astronomy

MUL.APIN - Decipherment as Astronomy

My revised decipherment of MUL.APIN - based on Papke's original decipherment - can be found starting at
http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi171.htm

Ancient Moselle Rock Carvings

Ancient Moselle Rock Carvings

Several months ago I discovered gigantic bird carvings on the sides of the slopes of the Moselle River Valley from Traben-Trarbach nearly to Enkirch. These carvings are out of solid stone (the stone here is slate and fairly easy to work). Now vineyards grow on these clearly visible surfaces.

Balnuaran of Clava Deciphered Ancient Linear Astronomy

Balnuaran of Clava Deciphered - Ancient Linear Astronomy - 8 Seasons

Due to my decipherment of other sites, I have been able to review my
previous interpretation of the cairns at Balnuaran of Clava near
Inverness of Scotland and decipher these definitively. My initial
interpretation of this site was not incorrect but needed amendment,
since it became clear that the ancients used stars much nearer to the
Pole than I had initially thought.

This decipherment is now found in the Ancient Britain folder of the LexiLine Newseltter at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files as the file

clavamap.tif

Time and time again I am taught the lesson in my decipherments that
SIMPLICITY is the key to knowledge and understanding of the Neolithic
period of astronomy.

The file clavamap.tif shows that the ancients in 3117 BC calculated
the Pole Star position and the North Ecliptic Pole (the non-moving
Center of Heaven around which precession rotates and the
ecliptic "circulates") using the three brightest stars which are in
the skies on or near the circle of precession - these brightest stars
are Polaris in Ursa Minor, Deneb in Cygnus and Vega in Lyra. Other stars in this area of the sky are much less bright.

The decipherment shows that the linear distance
between Polaris and Deneb
and between the Pole Star and Vega
in 3117 BC (otherwise not),
is THE SAME as the linear distance between
a) the South Pole and alpha in the Southern Triangle
b) alpha in the Southern Triangle and the head stars of Scorpio
(Graffias, Dschubba)
c) Graffias or Dschubba the head of Serpens Caput
d) the head of Serpens Caput and the North Pole Star position at 3117
BC - at all other times, this distance does not work for the distance
between Serpens Caput and the North Pole Star. This again gives us
another proof for the accuracy of the chronology.

On the Heifetz Planisphere, this linear distance is
2.8 centimeters.
In the software program Starry Night Pro, using the normal non-zoomed
display, this distance on the screen can be measured as
ca.
13 centimeters
with the distances between Vega and Deneb and the Pole Star and
Polaris in 3117 BC being half that at
6.5 centimeters.

This linear distance was then also used to divide the stars along the
ecliptic into their initial "seasonal positions" and was the origin
of what we today call the Zodiac of stars - which runs along the
ecliptic. Using this linear distance of 13 centimeters and marking
divisions on the ECLIPTIC we then get the following 8 segments -
perhaps the first formal human division of the ecliptic in this
manner.

1) AUTUMN EQUINOX
From Antares (viz. Dschubba & Graffias) Scorpio at the AUTUMN EQUINOX
to Spica (Virgo)
2) From Spica in Virgo to Zosma (Duhr) and Chort in Leo at the SUMMER
SOLSTICE

3) SUMMER SOLSTICE
From Zosma and Chort in Leo at the SUMMER SOLSTICE to Castor and
Pollux in GEMINI
4) From Castor and Pollux in GEMINI to the VERNAL EQUINOX at
Aldebaran in Taurus

VERNAL EQUINOX
5) From Aldebaran at the Vernal Equinox to the "cord of the fish"
(this explains how this "cord" originated and where it was originally
placed) at beta-Andromeda and eta-Piscum
6) from the Cord of the Fish to the WINTER SOLSTICE at the bucket of
Aquarius just to the left of the prow of the ship of Capricorn

WINTER SOLSTICE
7) From the Winter Solstice at Aquarius and Capricorn to the large
number of stars of Sagittarius at Nunki (sigma-Sagittarii), Kaus
Borealis (lambda-Sagittarii) and Kaus Australis (epsilon-Sagittarii).
8) From sigma-Sagittarii to Scorpio at Graffias viz Dschubba at the
AUTUMN EQUINOX.

Thus, the same "linear distance" was used to mark 8 divisions along
the ecliptic as was used to measure the sky and earth from south pole
to north pole and also to calculate pole stars and ecliptic poles, as
at Balnuaran of Clava.

We have evidence of this very old initial division of the heavens in
the ancient Latvian 8 seasons and also find the similar practice in
ancient Scotland, where a similar division of 8 seasons is found.

Planispheres and Astronomy Software

Planispheres and Astronomy Software

Many of the blog postings in the Ancient World Blog STONEHENGE can only be understood if one has a good historical planisphere or software program at hand.

In my opinion, the best software program available at an affordable price is Starry
Night Pro, see
http://www.starrynight.com.

Less expensive and useful is Milton D. Heifetz's Historical
Planisphere with Precession of the Equinoxes.
The Heifetz Planisphere is available from Learning Technologies,
inc., 40 Cameron Avenue, Somerville, MA, 02144 USA, internet at
http://www.starlab.com, e-mail at starlab@starlab.com, phone at 800-537-8703, 617-628-1459, and fax 617-628-8606.

The file
akskymap.tif at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files
is a file I have drawn, in color but only as an approximation of the
Heifetz Planisphere, and I recommend you do get the original.

However, my drawing gives you the major stars and constellations of the heavens in their positions ca. 3000 BC.

The center of heaven (for us in the Northern Hemisphere) - the North
Ecliptic Pole - is the small red-circumferenced green circle in the
middle of the drawing. The correspondingly colored large green circle
around it is the ECLIPTIC - we could also call this the "path of the
Sun" (and also of the planets and Moon, thought they do diverge from
it a bit in their movement). The ECLIPTIC is fixed and DOES NOT
CHANGE.

What has given the ancients over the millennia a great deal of
trouble is the CELESTIAL EQUATOR which is marked on akskymap.tif as a
large orange circle with a red-circumferenced orange circle in its
middle. THIS CIRCLE DOES appear to move its position for an observer
on Earth, because the Planet Earth wobbles like a spinning top and
its AXIS revolves around the red-dotted-line circle in the drawing
ONCE every 25920 years - which astronomers call precession.

As the red-circumferenced orange circle in the middle of the drawing
rotates counter-clockwise in 25920 years, it marks what we call the
Northern Pole Star, which is currently ca. Polaris - marked as a red-
circumferenced yellow circle on the red-dotted-line. In 3000 BC,
however, the position of the Northern Pole Star was at the red-
circumferenced orange circle in the middle. The pole star is always
at the middle of the orange circle marking the celestial equator, so
that this orange circle "moves" as the pole star moves. Hence, the
points at which the celestial equator and ecliptic intersect - these
points mark the Equinoxes - also move, and the solstices also move
correspondingly.

I have drawn the Line of the Equinoxes 3000 BC as well as the Line of
the Equinoxes 2002 AD on that drawing. Anyone can see how precession
affects the seasons. In 3000 BC the Spring Equinox was just to the
right of Orion. In our modern age the Spring Equinox is approaching
Aquarius (counter-clockwise) This is what the song in the
musical "Hair" some 30 years ago was proclaiming as "the Dawn of the
Age of Aquarius". Mankind, however, still has some time to wait
before this happens.

Mainstream historians of astronomy today allege that the ancients
were not familiar with precession - and this only shows that our
modern historians of astronomy know next to nothing about the ancient
skywatchers. We will continue to produce evidence that the ancients have been quite familiar with this phenomenon for thousands and thousands of years and that the
ancient Norse belief that "the sky was falling" is based on this
knowledge. Indeed, the need to account for precession (i.e. to
correctly predict the seasons and establish a workable calendar)
clearly was one major factor which led to the serious study of
astronomy by the ancients and to the megalithic sites which we study
today.

The line of the Equinoxes ca. 3000 BC shows why the ancients of that
period, for example, regarded the otherwise insignificant constellation of Serpens Caput to be so important. It was directly on the Equinox Line. Today, we pay little
attention to this "minor" constellation.

Make sure you also always look at the Milky Way in your astronomical
analysis, for the ancientd paid far more attention to the Milky Way
than we do today in our artificially lighted planet, whose man-made
lights and pollution are increasingly blotting out our heavens. The
horn of the Milky Way at Cepheus can clearly be seen and only when
one actually sees this position can one understand the megaliths of
e.g. Scotland which mark this constellation.

As a special treat, I have also tried in my drawing to make the major
stars of the heavens have the color in which they appear, even to the
unaided eye, and which the ancients noted carefully, in part using
megaliths of a comparable color to mark a given star.

Especially the reddish or
orange stars were given excessive attention by the skywatchers of
old. Perhaps they regarded these stars to be particularly powerful.
This surely was so for two of the major "red" stars of the heavens,
Antares and Aldebaran, which are more or less directly across from
each other near the line of the Equinoxes in ca. 3000 BC.

Once one gets the feel for the heavens in this perspective, the
astronomy of the ancients becomes more understandable. I thus
recommend you to print this drawing out for further use, but also to
get the software and the planisphere listed above. It is OUR world,
and we have no other, so we ought to know the basics about this one,
both past and present.

Felsenmeer Bergstrasse Odenwald Germany

Felsenmeer Bergstrasse Odenwald Germany

The file

felsmeer.tif

is available at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

showing that this fantastic site of thousands of giant stones
is not grouped in "natural" heaps as the geologists allege,
but are "natural" stones from that large steep semi-mountainous hill
which have been rolled, carried or lowered by ropes purposefully down
that hill into various heaps of stones by the ancients, thus
creating the pattern of stones which you see in the felsmeer.tif.

The stone groups shown on my drawing by the way are not my inventions
or interpretations but merely my re-drawing of a photo of the plan of
the Felsberg ("stone hill viz. mountain") and the Felsenmeer ("sea of
stones") which stands as a large billboard for all to see above the
stones at the top of the hill (semi-mountain). It was created by
the "Verein Naturpark Bergstrasse - Odenwald", whom I wish to thank
profusely for this gargantuan task. I will be posting a photo of this
billboard sign.

But this is not all. I have also re-drawn the pathways on this steep
mountain hill (as shown on the billboard sign) which apparently
follow the old tracks through the stones. The hill is so steep that
there are not that many alternative tracks, so any track through
these stones now is as good as that 6000 years ago, and if you look
at the felsmeer.tif, you may see some of the tell-tale figures marked
by these pathways. I will be uploading another .tif in coming days
showing those human and animal figures. In ca. 3800 BC, for example,
the Summer Solstice is at Gemini. Can you find the figures of the
largely drawn twins in the pathways?

Furthermore, I have taken photographs of some of the largest
gargantuan stones at the top of the hill which of course were not all
rolled into place, since some of them are as big as small houses and
are not even counted to the stone heaps, but from my photos the
analysis of the Felsenmeer will be confirmed, for these Herculean-
size stones, not just those in the large heaps, are also carved and
sculpted and show stars of the sky of the heavens.

In fact, the Felsenmeer is unique for having over 300 stones which
have been recognized by experts as having been "worked" by human hand
but which the archaeologists have erroneously placed in the Roman
period, regarding them as "partially worked stones" which were left
in place (often in impossible locations!) due to an error in the
stone or faulty workmanship on them. That would be a world record -
over 300 gigantic stones partially worked by hand and left for faulty
workmanship, often in locations where transport would be a super-
human task?? in Germany? No, certainly not sloppy workmanship in
Germany. There are clearly a couple of stones there from the Roman
period (one column, e.g.) but the rest - are nearly 4000 years older
and there is no fault or flaw on them, as we shall see. The ancients
worked these stones into various forms corresponding to the stars and
constellations of the heavens and left them in situ (in place where
they stood) for later generations to appreciate.

The Felsenmeer - in the German geodetic survey which I have
deciphered and will soon also be explaining in these pages -
represented the position of the Pleiades, which were sort of a
germination platform for the stars in ancient belief, so that these
stones in the Felsenmeer are a conceptual symbolic fertilization for
the stars of the heavens.

In working on the German geodetic system, by the way, I was recently
at the Gollenstein (The Gollen Stone) in Blieskastel near the south
border to France and Luxembourg (near Saarbrücken). This stone is 7
meters 60 (6 meters 60 cm of that is above ground). It is the tallest
megalith in all of middle Europe. I will be showing how the
Gollenstein is an ancient representation of the largest
constellation, Hydra, this being the reason for the enormous size of
this megalith. There will be more interesting things from that site.

Miami Circle Brickell Point Florida

Miami Circle Brickell Point Florida

The connection of the Miami Circle to the Great Lakes region was
recently made by Florida archaeologists who found hematite point
projectiles near the Miami Circle site.

One of these iron oxide projectiles, according to the archaeologists,
stems from the Great Lakes region ca. 5000-6000 years ago.

See
http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/brickellpoint/fieldbook5.html

This find fits exactly with my chronological dating of the alleged geodetic survey of the earth by astronomy in ca. 3117 BC.

See http://www.starsstonesscholars.com

It also meshes well with my hypothesis that the site at Peterborough,
Canada, was a center of geodetic survey ca. 3117 BC in the Americas and tied in to theMiami site. The ancient surveyors came southward from Peterborough.

see the files

miamibig.tif
miamihyd.tif
miaminw.tif
miamisw.tif

at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

These 4 files present my decipherments of the Miami Circle, which was
discovered at Brickell Point, Florida only a few years ago.

My decipherments show the Miami Circle to represent the position of
Hydra in the geodetic survey of 3117 BC and also show the figures,
stars and constellations represented by the Miami Circle.

Let me say that my decipherments here are still PROVISIONAL because
the photographic sources at my disposal are limited.

MIAMIBIG.TIF

miamibig.tif shows ONLY the large figures which can be seen on initial aerial
photographs taken of the site. These are:

1. the serpent of heaven, as Hydra and Draco encircling the Milky
Way (the Milky Way is marked by that "circle" of holes, all of which
represent figures of fish, birds, animals etc.)
2. Man and Woman as Ursa Major and Cassiopeia
3. Ursa Minor as an axe (or hammer)
4. Leo and surrounding constellations as a large cat head
5. A mouse (?) as Cepheus

These large figures - whence my giving the name miamibig.tif - must
have been carved first. Thereafter, the ancients must have added
smaller figures and stars and constellations. Some of the artwork is
truly unique, though it bears the same stamp as the artwork at Kents
Cavern - perhaps one person drew the design and the others carved it
out?

The circle is surrounded by faces apparently representing the artists
who made this site and there are several instances of strong
fertility art at the rim of the picture as well as in the center
which I will not go into further. If you are able to see these
instances, fine. Mankind has not changed much in this regard in 5000
years.

A more detailed analysis of the figures and astronomy of the Miami
Circle can be seen at

miamihyd.tif

which shows the decipherment of the entire Miami Circle in detail

and also

miamisw.tif
and
miaminw.tif

which show my decipherment of the respective Southwest and Northwest
corners of the circle, with the NW corner being particularly
instructive. These decipherments are not complete, since the
available photographic material is incomplete.

The SE and SW corners have long been "under construction" by the
archaeologists and thus not photographically accessible for detailed
analysis.

German Magdalenian Planisphere in Gönnersdorf Andernach ?

German Magdalenian Planisphere in Gönnersdorf Andernach ?

There are many megalithic and prehistoric sites in Germany.

I have a possible decipherment of a stone allegedly preserved under the pumice from a volcano eruption and thus datred to ca. 11000 BC at Maria Laach near Koblenz, Germany and near the Magdalenian sites of Andernach near Koblenz and Gönnersdorf near
Neuwied (other side of the Rhine)

The decipherment is found in the file rhineman.tif at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

The stone could be interpreted as a planisphere of the heavens dated to 11000 BC, at a time when the summer solstice point was at the base of the division of the
Milky Way into two legs near Aquila and Serpens Cauda. The "joining"
area of the two legs of the Milky Way is at Deneb in Cygnus.

However, this is so far and improbably back in time, that this idea should be treated as very speculative at best.

Maya Temples and Maya Planispheres - Yucatan - Oxkintok - San

Maya Temples and Maya Planispheres - Yucatan - Oxkintok - San
Bartolo, Guatemala

As found in the LexiLine Newsletter at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

the file

mayayuc1.tif

shows the mountain temples of Yucatan, the purpose of which has
been unexplained up to now.

As I have discovered, these temples were erected by the Maya on
ancient sites which marked the measurement which is recorded at
Thornborough Circles - i.e. the 1/4 of heaven measured in 3117 BC
from the star alpha Hydrus to the star beta Hydrus to the star
alpha in Triangulum Australis. This measurement was made along a
natural ridge used for marking the celestial meridian on the line of
the equinoxes.

The amazing thing is that I have also found an additional proof for
the correctness of the decipherment at Yucatan and Thornborough.

The uppermost and most northerly of these Yucatan temples is Oxkintok
(Maxcanu) and a wondrous Maya Mask was found there - a mask with 3
eyes in the shape of the 3 end stars of Scorpio which mark the Autumn
Equinox along the celestial meridian 3117 BC on the line running from
the star alpha in Hydrus to the star beta in Hydrus to the star alpha
in Triangulum Australis.

I would never have looked at this mask twice if it were not for those
three eyes and the fact that the mask is made with the smallest of
stones at the top with larger stones toward the face - which I
thought was strange - since the top of the head would be the easiest
to paste stones on - as a flat surface without the features of the
face - and yet the smallest stones were used here rather than the
large ones I would have expected, so I thought, this was probably
done with a purpose.

I examined all the stones with the various tools of my graphics
programs (picture enlargement, threshold colors and lines, etc.).

To my own astonishment, the stones on the Maya Mask are a planisphere
of the heavens. This must have been a Maya Star Priest.

Hence, I have added the file

mayamask.tif

to a new Maya folder which I have created under the existing folder
Ancient Planispheres.

Also to that new Maya folder I have added

mayawall.tif

which takes a Maya Wall Mural

as published in the most recent National Geographic Magazine

and which
I draw showing how that wall mural represents the portion of the
heavens running from Pisces to Orion.

Since this is 1 side of a 4-walled shrine (which reminds of the
ancient astronomical shrines, e.g., in China), I can state with
relative certainty that the other 3 sides, when published, will show
the other three corresponding regions of Heaven.

Thornborough Circles Deciphered as Astronomy

Thornborough Circles Deciphered as Astronomy

Starry Night Pro, the best state-of-the-art astronomy program on the market today, has permitted the making of some corrections and new discoveries for the Thornborough Circles, Yorkshire, England, 3117 BC.

See thornbor.tif and thornbo2.tif in the LexiLine files at
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

The calculation being performed by the Thornborough Circles is the measure of the celestial meridian at the equinoxes in 3117 BC from the South Pole Star to the
North Pole Star.

The measuring points used by the ancients were the following stars or
positions, EACH EQUIDISTANT IN HEAVEN FROM THE POINT BEFORE AND AFTER
IT:

- the star alpha in Hydrus (close by is the South Pole Star in
3117 BC represented as a small mound at Thornborough)
- the star alpha in Triangulum Australis
- the star alpha in Scorpio, Antares
- the star kappa in Serpens Caput - this explains why this otherwise
rather insignificant constellation was so important in this era (!)
- the North Pole Star

These stars mark the Celestial Meridian at the Equinoxes in 3117 BC.

The decipherment of the 3 circles runs from the star alpha in
Hydrus to the star beta in Hydrus to the star alpha in Triangulum
Australis, i.e. a distance of 1/4 of the heavens.

The place of origin of this measurement was further
south - and as we shall see - originally YUCATAN.

The ancient locations for the measurements were later places on which
temples were built by the Maya, but the original measurements were
made by the people who came down in legend to be known as the Argonauts long before them.

More Megalithic Decipherments at the LexiLine Newsletter

More Megalithic Decipherments at the LexiLine Newsletter
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

woodheng.gif - Stonehenge
stnhgbr2.jpg.gif - Woodhenge
lejciems.jpg - Latvian Textile from Lejasciems
ogamhitt.tif - Ogam Hittite Script Comparison by Barry Fell

ANCIENT PLANISPHERES

ANCIENT PLANISPHERES - Around the World in the LexiLine Newsletter Files
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

Ancient Baltic Astronomers - Baltic Cupmarked Stones
nabala.gif - Nabala Stone of Estonia
sooaluse.gif - Sooaluse Stone of Estonia
tumala.gif - Tumala Stone of Estonia
viruakmn.gif - Viru Stone from Estonia

Ancient Germany - Planispheres and Megaliths in Germany
kyffhaus.tif - Kyffhäuser Sun Shield (Sternenscheibe) Sangerhausen
Solar Eclipse March 23/24, 2340 BC
osterode.tif - Lichtensteinhöhle (Lichtenstein Cave) Osterode Dorste
Sky Map

Ancient Russia - Lake Onega - Planisphere in Hermitage Museum
ermitage.gif - Lake Onega Planisphere - 4000 BC
ermitage.tif - Lake Onega Planisphere - 4000 BC

Catal Huyuk - Anatolian planisphere
catalhuy.gif - Catal Huyuk Shrine VI.A.66 skymap

Egypt Norse Lascaux - Skymap - common elements
medelhav.gif - Hippopotamus Hunt Palette

Egypt - Norse connection - Rock Drawings of Boats
egypnors.gif - Predynastic Egypt - Scandinavia - Boat Rock Drawings
egypship.gif - Naqada II Astro-Vase Predynastic Egypt
vasenqda.gif - Naqada I Astro-Vase - Predynastic Egypt

Egypt Sothis Sethos - Ceiling Painting - Sethos Tomb
sothisak.gif - Planisphere Sothis Tomb 1178 BC

Great Wall of China - Great Wall as Dragon & Milky Way
dragon.gif - Great Wall as Sky Jade Dragon 62 KB
greatwal.gif - Great Wall as Milky Way

Hierakonpolis Egypt - Naqada II-C Wall Painting Explained
gymnaqad.gif - Compare to Nazca monkey
naqada1.gif - Naqada Wall Painting - total view
naqada2.gif - Wall Painting - Left 1/4 enlarged
naqada3.gif - Wall Painting Left 2/4 enlarged
naqada4.gif - Wall Painting Right 3/4 enlarged
naqada5.gif - Wall Painting Right 4/4 enlarged
naqada9.gif - Wall Painting Explained in Full
orionnaq.gif - Orion and Cursa - see Nazca monkey and Tanum Man with
Shield

Karelia - Staraya Zalavruga - Planisphere - Pre-Pharaonic Hieroglyphs
staraya.gif - Staraya Zalavruga
staraya.tif - Staraya Zalavruga

Kurgan planisphere - Maikop Kurgan and Predynastic Egyptian comparison
maikop2.gif - Maikop Kurgan Skymap compared to Hierakonpolis wall
painting

La Ferrassie - Astronomy in Cupmarked Stones
ferrasi1.gif - The "Man in the Sky"
ferrasi2.gif - Taurus and the Pleiades in Stone
ferrasi3.gif - The Man in the Sky plus Original Stone
ferrasi4.gif - The Center of Heaven 9100 BC

La Hogue Bie - Jersey Planisphere Inner Sanctum 2340 BC
hoguebie.tif - La Hogue Bie Inner Sanctum Rock Wall Planisphere 2340
BC

Lascaux - Lascaux Astronomy
lascaux0.gif - Lascaux - Astronomy - Pleiades
lascaux1.gif - Lascaux - Astronomy - Orion

Milky Way - Pleiades - Ennead - Creation Myth - Atum - Pesedjet
cosmiceg.gif - The Way to Heaven - Cosmic Egg
cosmiceg.tif - The Way to Heaven - Cosmic Egg

Nazca - Nazca Figures and Lines Explained
hydrus.gif - Compare to Sahara Hydrus
nazcacas.gif - Stars of Cassiopeia
nazcacel.gif - Crossing - Ecliptic, Celestial equator
nazcamer.gif - Nazca Lines & Figures Explained
nazcamky.gif - Orion - Vedic Hanuman - see Naqada gymnast
nazcaspd.gif - Nazca Spider - the stars of Eridanus
nazcawal.gif - Constellation of Cetus - the Whale

Sahara Africa - Rock Drawings of the Sahara
sahara.gif - Sahara Rock Drawings 6700 BC
this date may be subject to review in light of Kents Cavern, ANCIENT
BRITAIN folder

Sardinia - Megalithic Sites and Nuraghi
boeli.tif - Sardinia - Mamoiada Boeli Sa Perda Pinta Megalith -
Middle of Heaven
montessu.tif - Sardinia - Montessu - Villaperuccio - Tomba Delle
Spirali - Taurus Pleiades
terrazz.tif - Sardinia - Terrazzu Monolith - Cord of the Fish

Ship of Sargon - Sargon's Heavenly Ship Explained
sargon01.gif - Sargon's Ship Explained
sargonii.gif - Sargon's Ship, Louvre

Sumerian Skymap - Sumerian Skymap Girsu Lagash
chaldea1.gif - Sumerian Planisphere Explained
chaldean.gif - Plansiphere - British Museum

Sumerian Planisphere - Chaldean Planisphere Explained
lagash2.gif - Lagash Planisphere

Tanum At Fossum Sweden - Norse Rock Drawings Explained
tanblack.gif - Tanum Rock Drawing - Full View
tanum001.gif - Rock Draw - Left & Middle explained
tanum002.gif - Rock Draw - Right side explained
tanumaa.gif - Rock Drawing - Left Side - enlarged
tanumbb.gif - Rock Drawing - Middle - enlarged
tanumcc.gif - Rock Drawing - Right side -enlarged
tanumdd.gif - Rock Drawing - Left and Middle - enlarged
tanumpeg.gif - Rock Drawing - The Great Square

Ural Cave Paintings - Ural Mountain Cave Sky Maps
ignatiev.gif - Ignatievka Cave Painting

Utah Indians North America - Rock Drawing Planisphere
utahplan.gif - Newspaper Rock Planisphere

Technorati Tags
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ANCIENT HERMETIC TEMPLES - LexiLine Newsletter

ANCIENT HERMETIC TEMPLES - LexiLine Newsletter

greatwal.gif - Great Wall of China = heavenly Milky Way 33 KB

tikalnew.gif - TIKAL - Maya Hermetic City - 293 AD - 819-day
calibration - for tropical year 11 KB

ANCIENT GEODETICS - Files in the LexiLine Newsletter

ANCIENT GEODETICS - Files in the LexiLine Newsletter

geodetic.gif - Ancient Geodetic World Measure 116 KB
lozereak.gif - Lozere - Geodetic Megalithic Node 111 KB
rhodes1.gif - Cutting the Gordian Knot

FILES in the ANCIENT BRITAIN Folder - LexiLine Newsletter

FILES in the ANCIENT BRITAIN Folder - LexiLine Newsletter - Decipherments of Megaliths in Ancient Britain
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/LexiLine/files

If the same file exists in several formats, the .tif has better quality.

Unless otherwise noted, all drawings are copyright by Andis Kaulins.

africa.tif - Survey of Africa ca. 3117 BC 22 KB
astrgeom.tif - UK Megalithic Astronomical Survey System 24 KB
ayrarran.gif - Ayr - Arran - Glasgow - Dumfries - Galloway - Kintyre 11 KB
ayrarran.tif - Ayr - Arran - Glasgow - Dumfries - Galloway - Kintyre 31 KB
barclod.tif - Barclodiad y Gawres - The Globe Stone, Africa = Apron 25 KB
borrowst.tif -Borrowstown Rig Lauder Precession Correction Taurus Orion Perseus 10 KB
bouar.tif - Bouar - Center of Africa - Megaliths 3117 BC - CentralAfrican Republic 23 KB
brimble.tif - Somerset Brimble Pit Swallet polished axe Milky Way - large version 227 KB
brimble2.tif - Somerset Brimble Pit Swallet polished axe Milky Way - small version 29 KB
brimham.tif - Brimham - Nearby Hippopotamus Elephant Sone - Indus 18KB
cahokia.gif - Astrogeodetics of America 12 KB
cahokia.tif - Astrogeodetics of America 31 KB
cairnbaa.gif - Cairn Baan - Argo Vela Carina Antlia 6 KB
cairnbaa.tif - Cairn Baan - Argo Vela Carina Antlia 16 KB
calderst.tif - Calderstones - Allerton, Liverpool - stars btw. Sag,Capr., Aquila and Pavo 25 KB
carnbrae.tif - Carn Brae Redruth Hydra Summer Solstice 3117 BC 9 KB
cepheus1.gif - Cepheus-Scotland-Astronomy-Origins 11 KB
cepheus1.tif - Cepheus-Scotland-Astronomy-Origins 34 KB
chadling.tif - Chadlington Hawk Stone - Wing of Cygnus 10 KB
clavadpr.jpg - Clava - Ursa Major cupmarked stone 29 KB
clavadrg.gif - Clava - The Dragon Head Stone 118 KB
clavadrg.jpg - Clava - jpg - Dragon Head Stone 31 KB
clavamap.gif - Clava Cairns - map & interpretation 21 KB
clavasky.gif - Clava - Sky Orientation by Stars 16 KB
clavcntr.gif - Clava-Inverness-Astronomy-Origins 12 KB
clavcntr.tif - Clava-Inverness-Astronomy-Origins 34 KB
coldrum.tif - Coldrum Catigern ARA Jullieberries NORMA 22 KB
conger.tif - Edinburgh Conger Eel Gogar Stone 8 KB
creswel2.tif - Creswell Crags Ground Plan and Sky Map 25 KB
creswell.tif - Creswell Crags - Aerial View - Star Canyon betweenAquila and Capricorn 19 KB
denbury1.tif - Devon - Denbury - England - 1 - Sky Map Inscribed onthe Ground 27 KB
denbury2.tif - Devon - Denbury - England - 2 - Sky Map Inscribed onthe Ground 22 KB
drumelzr.tif - Merlin's Stone Drumelzier Haugh Taurus Orion 14 KB
dunstabl.tif - Maiden Bower Veil & Lacework Nebula NGC6960 Royston19 KB
eelsseal.tif - Pisces Eels Tollis Longformacus Galashiels 31 KB
enaltair.tif - England Arbor Low Henge - Altair - Planisphere 29 KB
enaquila.tif - England Peak District - Neolithic Sites - Aquila 21 KB
engaquil.tif - England Peak District - Bird Megaliths - Aquila 22 KB
engaries.tif - English Tumuli Barrows - Aries to Aquarius 28 KB
engbdfrd.tif - Maiden Bower Therfield Heath overview 18 KB
engcntr.tif - Megaliths - Astronomy - Heaven's Center England 27 KB
enggemin.tif - Somerset Gemini Swallets - General Overview 19 KB
engseast.tif - English Tumuli Barrows - Aquarius to SouthernTriangle 31 KB
engstnhg.tif - Megaliths - Astronomy - Stonehenge - Pleiades -Silbury Hill - Perseus - England 26 KB
engswest.tif - SW England Tumuli Barrows Cornwall Apus MuscaCentaurus 22 KB
engvirgo.tif - Bodmin Moor Devon Virgo Boötes Hydra - Overview 20 KB
engwhole.tif - England - Overview Map - Megaliths - Astronomy 31 KB
enstone.tif - Hoar Stones Enstone Oxfordshire Cepheus 9 KB
eridanu2.gif - Drumtroddan - Stone of Eridanus 13 KB
eridanu2.tif - Drumtroddan - Stone of Eridanus 33 KB
eridcomp.gif - Drumtroddan - Original and Interpretation 68 KB
eridcomp.tif - Drumtroddan - Original and Decipherment 79 KB
glasghu1.gif - Glasgow "Glas Ghu Stone" - as is 38 KB
glasghu2.gif - Glasgow "Glas Ghu Stone" - explained 41 KB
glassary.gif - Kilmichael Glassary Sky Planisphere 3117 BC 8 KB
glassary.tif - Kilmichael Glassary Sky Planisphere 3117 BC 13 KB
harewood.tif - Harewood Spoffarth Stones - kappa and zeta Pavo 22 KB
hurlers.tif - Hurlers - Proof of Precession - an English Nazca 23 KB
hydra2.gif - Ballymeanoch Kilmartin - Hydra Stones 13 KB
hydra2.tif - Ballymeanoch Kilmartin - Hydra Stones 36 KB
irminsul.tif - Somerset Brimble Pit Swallet Gemini IrminsulBallakelly 28 KB
justicer.tif - Justice Stone Hopetown Wood Queensferry Edinburgh 14KB
kentcav1.tif - Kents Cavern - Cave of Inscriptions - King Arthur'sTable - Sky Map 29 KB
kentcave.tif - KENTS CAVERN - plan - map of the World and theHeavens - better than Escher 44 KB
kingston.tif - Kings Stone Rollright Stones Deneb in Cygnus 26 KB
knowlton.tif - Knowlton Rings - Taurus and the Hyades - also showPleiades 17 KB
lanyon.tif - Lanyon Quoit - Centaurus - Megalith Builders 12 KB
lewes2.tif - Lewes, England - Astronomy as Topography of the Region30 KB
macbeth.gif - Macbeth Stone - Tayside - Perseus 4 KB
macbeth.tif - Macbeth Stone - Tayside - Perseus 11 KB
machrie.tif - Machrie, Arran, Scotland - Whales 13 KB
magellan.tif - Magellanic Cloud - Large - LMC - Lamorna 12 KB
mayburg2.tif - Mayburgh Henge Stone (back) UK Center Dorado LMC PoleStar 8 KB
mayburgh.tif - Mayburgh Henge Stone (front) UK Center Dorado LMC PoleStar 27 KB
melrose.tif - Melrose Stone in Shape of Cetus 5 KB
menantol.tif - Men-an-Tol Cornwall Penwith Centaurus Cord of theFish 10 KB
merlincv.tif - Kents Cavern (Merlin's Cavern - King Arthur's RoundTable) - Torquay Torbay - Map of Survey of Africa ca. 3117 BC 25 KB
minchin1.tif - Minchinhampton Long Stone Center of Heaven 16 KB
minions.tif - Minions - Perseus at the Hurlers north circle 10 KB
mulfra.tif - Mulfra Quoit - Centaurus and Lupus 6 KB
niddrie.tif - Niddrie House Stone Edinburgh Border End Ram Stone 11KB
pateley.tif - Pately Fertility Stone - Indus 9 KB
pedens.tif - Ram's Head Peden's Pulpit Stone Gameshope Tweedsmuir 11KB
peebles.tif - White Stone Peebles Circle of Precession 3117 BC Mizar8 KB
pentreif.tif - Pentre Ifan - Carreg Samson - Scorpio South Wales 20KB
perseus.gif - Perth - Edinburgh - Megaliths -Astronomy 10 KB
perseus.tif - Perth - Edinburgh - Megaliths -Astronomy 28 KB
phoenix.gif - Lordenshaws - Northumberland 5 KB
pipers.tif - Pipers at The Hurlers - end stars Lacerta 12 KB
pitcur.gif - Pitcur Souterrain - Collace Perthshire 4 KB
pitcur.tif - Pitcur Souterrain - Collace Perthshire 10 KB
pleiadbw.tif - Winterbourne Stoke Barrows - Pleiades 18 KB
pleiades.jpg - Photographs of the Pleiades 131 KB
ratho.tif - Ratho Edinburgh Stone of Aries Tormain Hill 10 KB
rollntry.tif - Rollright Stones - Entrance Stones - Draco Vega Lyra17 KB
rombalds.tif - Rombalds Moor - Ilkley - Harrogate - Pavo - Indus 22KB
roughtor.tif - Rough Tor Stowe's Pound Stripple Stones White BarrowCorringdon Ball - Corona Boralis Virgo Boötes Pyxis 22 KB
rudstone.tif - Rudston Stone Yorkshire Hydrus Bird of ParadiseDuggleby Howe Gypsey Race 19 KB
sagitar1.gif - Orkneys Astronomy Origins 10 KBsagitar1.tif - Orkneys Astronomy Origins 29 KB
scorpsky.gif - Scotland West Megaliths - Scorpio, Centaurus, Hydra12 KB
scorpsky.tif - Scotland West Megaliths - Scorpio, Centaurus, Hydra34 KB
scotsky1.tif - Scotland Hermetic Astronomy Overview 67 KB
scotskys.gif - Scotland Hermetic Astronomy Overview 15 KB
scotskys.tif - Scotland Hermetic Astronomy Overview 39 KB
shetland.gif - Shetlands - Pavo - Octans - Hydra 7 KB
shetland.tif - Shetlands - Pavo - Octans - Hydra 22 KB
silbury2.tif - Silbury Hill - Map of the Heavens - MegalithicFertility Function 29 KB
skyeeyre.gif - Skye - Stone of Eyre - Lupus Centaurus 5 KB
skyeeyre.tif - Skye - Stone of Eyre - Lupus Centaurus 14 KB
snowden.tif - Snowden Carr - Skull Stone Large Magellanic Cloud TreeStone Bird of Paradise 28 KB
spinners.tif - Spinster's Rock (correctly Spinner's Rock) - Cancer - Bobbin Spindle Loom 18 KB
stoneyli.tif - Stoney Littleton - at hole in Wansdyke - SpringEquinox 3117 BC 12 KB
sunhoney.gif - Sunhoney Recumbent Stone - Cepheus 6 KB
thornbor.tif - Thornborough Circles, Ripon Yorkshire - Southern PoleStar Position - Southern Stellar Constellations 23 KB
tinkins.tif - Parc Cwm Tinkinswood Arthur's Stone Maen Ceti SerpensCaput Ophiuchus 17 KB
tordroch.gif - Tordarroch - epsilon-Ursa-Major 5 KB
trefig.tif - Trefignath - North Wales - Sagittarius 26 KB
tregiff.tif - Tregiffian - Magellanic Cloud's Cave Location Stone 8KB
trelew.tif - Cornwall Carina - Canopus Trelew Blind Fiddler FalseCross 12 KB
trellack.tif - Trellack - Harold's Stones - Ursa Major 11 KB
trethevy.tif - Trethevy Quoit Hydra Leo - Virgo to Regulus 29 KB
tuilyies.gif - Tuilyies - Fife - Pleiades 10 KB
tuilyies.tif - Tuilyies - Fife - Pleiades 27 KB
walesagt.tif - Wales north- Isle of Man - Liverpool - SagittariusCorona Australis 20 KB
walescrp.tif - Wales south Paviland - Scorpio Serpens Caput OphiuchusMerlin Aesculapius 26 KB
wayland1.tif - Megaliths - Astronomy - Wayland's Smithy - Andromeda -Pegasus - England 24 KB
wookey.tif - Somerset Wookey Caves Gough's Cave Slitter 20 KB
zennor.tif - Zennor Quoit Cornwall Penwith Centaurus 12 KB

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Sky Earth Native America


Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
,
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    ,
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.

    -----

    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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