Tuesday, August 10, 2004

Mitochondrial Mutation Rate and Ancient Cultures

Mitochondrial Mutation Rate and Ancient Cultures

That the mitochondrial mutation rate (set at about 1 mutation in 600
generations) is likely much higher than assumed by Sykes can be seen
at the site of The Molecular History Research Center at

Some studies have shown a mutation rate of 1 in about 40
generations, see e.g.

Sykes places Ursula at 40,000 BC in Greece whereas the oldest
archaeological records of first humans in Greece would seem to be
about 20000 BC as at Franchthi, Greece - see
so that a good argument could be made that all of Sykes dates should
at least be halved.

If one does so then the dates correspond better with the dating of
archaeological finds in the respective regions.

Xenia at 24,000 years ago would more correctly be ca. 12,000 years ago, a date also
assigned by the linguists to the spread of Indo-European from this
central European region and close to the Mesolithic skulls found in Eastern Europe
dating to ca. 8000 BC.

Helena in France at 20,000 years ago would be ca. 10,000 years ago
and thus near the date of 9000 BC I assign to the astronomical
paintings at Lascaux.

Velda in Spain at 17,000 years would be in the same chronological
ball park at ca. 9000 BC for the Altamira cave paintings near

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Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."