Monday, March 02, 2015

Mitla in Oaxaca Mexico Marks Stars of Lepus Plus Upper Stars of Columba

We found a more than 100-year-old general map of Mitla in Oaxaca, Mexico, online at Maps ETC, from which we could conclude via our decipherment that Mitla represents stars of Lepus as shown in the image below.

The base map for Mitla we used and to which we have added the explanatory red circles and lines to show the star correspondences is a Maps ETC map of Mitla, University of Florida,, a map which is a facsimile of a sketch map by Adolph Bandelier (1885) of the pre-Columbian archeological site at Mitla, Oaxaca, Mexico (sometimes Miquitlan, Mictlan).

The map is keyed to show (A) the ruins on the highest ground, with a church and curacy built into the walls, (B, C, and E) are ruins outside the village, (D) is within the modern village, (F) is beyond the river.

Source of the map originally for ETC was: Justin Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America Vol 1 (New York, NY: Houghton, Mifflin, and Company, 1889) 184. Map Credit: Courtesy the private collection of Roy Winkelman.

Very useful to us in understanding the architectural construction on the ground was a Baedeker map found at

In the 1885 map of Bandelier, we can extrapolate from the Baedeker map for the alphabetically marked areas above, as follows:
  • A marks the location known as "Grupo de las Iglesias", Church Group, viewable at Instituto Cultural Quetzalcoatl,, Grupo de la Iglesia. Zona Arqueológica de Mitla, Oaxaca, México, Cultura Mixteca at
  • B and C mark stars of the location known as "Grupo de las Columnas", marking the horizontal "column" of stars as the "Salon de las Columnas", i.e. the Hall of Columns, viewable at Instituto Cultural Quetzalcoatl,, Grupo de las Columnas. Zona Arqueológica de Mitla, Oaxaca, México, Cultura Mixteca. at
  • D marks the location known as "Grupo del Arroyo", the Arroyo Group
  • E marks the location known as "Grupo de los Adobes", the Adobe Group
  • Grupo del Sur is the "South Group" below the Rio Mitla, which separates the stars of Lepus from the stars of Columba
Since the Mitla ruins extend downward to mark also stars at the top of Columba, we also looked at the neighboring but somewhat distant and more modern Palenque, which via our decipherment in the next posting is shown to clearly mark the stars of Columba.

THIS POSTING IS Posting Number 28 of
The Great Mound, Petroglyph and Painted Rock Art Journey of Native America

Mitla in Oaxaca Mexico Marks Stars of Lepus Plus Upper Stars of Columba

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Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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