Wednesday, October 12, 2005

10 - The Cult of Horus and the Origins of Astronomy - Nr. 10

10 - The Cult of Horusand the Origins of Astronomy - Nr. 10
The little-known "Newby Palette" of the "Double Falcon King", dated to approximately 3300-3200 B.C. and found today in the Barbier-Mueller Museum in Geneva, Switzerland,[24] (Figure 4), virtually begins the era of predynastic kings in Egypt.[25]

The Newby Palette is nearly a Pharaonic comparable to Yggdrasil ("rotating column"), the world tree (Weltenbaum) of the ancient Germanic peoples. It is an artefact containing all motives of our present discussion. We interpret it to be the representation of the stars at heaven’s center.

According to Germanic mythology,[26] an eagle (or hawk) Wderfölnir, [instead of a falcon] sits in the crown of the world tree. A snake (or dragon) Nidhögg gnaws at the root of the tree. Another "gnawing toothed animal" (Ratastöskr) [squirrel?], is mentioned:[27]

"The tree Yggdrasil... was the central - both pictorial as well as abstract - construction of the Germanic religion.... Yggdrasil as the central axis connected the worlds of the universe.... Ratastöskr continuously raced up and down the trunk, trying – successfully -to keep in check the permanent battle between the hawk Wderfölnir in the crown of the world tree and the envious dragon (serpent) Nidhögg gnawing at one the three roots of the world tree...."

The Pharaonic Newby Palette[28] shows a similar world view. The two falcons, that I interpret to be the stars Kochab and Pherkad in Ursa Minor, known as "guardians of the pole" in ancient tradition, sit together with the serpent [dragon] and another "gnawing toothed" animal (hyena jackal, wolf or dog) at heaven’s center. Although the place of discovery (provenance) of the Newby Palette in Egypt is not known, its genuineness is verified by a very similar piece in a museum in Munich, Germany, where the falcon on one side is broken off:[29]
[24] Laure Meyer, Métamorphoses de l'Art antique, Archéologia 267 (Dijon, France, April, 1991), pp. 18-25 (fig. p. 20) . Photograph by John D. Degreef. See: and
[25] See
[26] Ygg’drasil', E. Cobham Brewer, Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, 1898, "In the tree, which drops honey, sit an eagle [hawk, falcon], a squirrel, and four stags. At the root lies the serpent Nithhöggr gnawing it.... See also Weltesche: "Vier Hirsche laufen ständig den Stamm entlang und beißen dem Stamm die jungen Knospen ab. Ein Drache mit Namen "Nidhögger" macht das gleiche mit den Wurzel...."
[27] Alfred Stolz,
Schamanen. Ekstase und Jenseitssymbolik, Cologne, 1988 (Dumont Taschenbücher 210). See
[28] "It is also believed that Double Falcon may have ruled in Upper Egypt (Adaima), the Memphite Region (Turah/ Ezbet Luthy), and the Delta and North Sinai (Tell Ibrahim Awad, El-Beda, N. Sinai). It is unclear whether or not he may have established himself a rule of Abydos and the Southern Levant region (Palmahim Quarry). These assumptions are results of the areas in which his serekh was found." See
[29] Alfred Grimm and Sylvia Schoske,
Am Beginn der Zeit, Ägypten in der Vor- und Frühzeit; Ausstellungskatalog, Heft 9, Schriften aus der Ägyptischen Sammlung (SAS); Munich, Staatliches Museum Ägyptischer Kunst, 24.12. 2000 - 22.4.2001, p. 59.

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Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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