Saturday, October 15, 2005

28 - The Cult of Horus and the Origins of Astronomy - Nr. 28

28 - The Cult of Horus
and the Origins of Astronomy - Nr. 28

The two circular @-shaped hieroglyphs over the nine decimal hieroglyphs for the decimal 1s (ones) are read incorrectly twice by the Egyptologists. On the one hand, they erroneously see these hieroglyphs as a decimal part of the number below. That is wrong. If these two hieroglyphs were integral parts of that number, the Pharaohs would have written them that way. The Egyptologists argue that the unusual numeric Pharaonic notation found here was thus adopted for "reasons of beauty". Nonsense.

Erroneous is also the reading of the @-shaped hieroglyphs as 100’s, which in fact they were in much later dynasties. Here they stand for 60’s, i.e. 2 x 60 days = 120 intercalary (leap) days. It appears as if this hieroglyph might derive from the similar Sumerian numeric symbol for 60 (or vice versa). We must emphasize that there is no dispute with the fact that the @-shaped hieroglyph represented 100s and that the nail-formed hieroglyph represented 10000s, but in much later dynasties. However, in Khasekhemwy’s day, these numbers were not yet decimally standardized. In 2638 B.C., their decimal value depended on their placement only.[57]

Duncan J. Melville writes that the Sumerian locking of symbols to specific fixed decimal place values occurred only at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C. (2000 B.C.). Prior to that, there was much variation:[58]

"By about 3000 BC, the Sumerians were drawing images of tokens on clay tablets....

Ten cones equaled one small circle, six small circles equaled one big cone, ten big cones was a big cone with a circle inside it, six of those was a large circle and ten large circles was given by a large circle with a small circle inside...."

[Here we have a
drawing similar to one in Melville at this juncture:]

"... a single sign might be used in several systems, where it could mean different multiples of the base unit. In particular, the small circle could mean 6, 10 or 18 small cones, depending on context....

The final step in this story, occurring probably some time in the Ur III period, right at the end of the third millennium, was the introduction of a sexagesimal place value system.

The price paid [for this system] was that a vertical wedge could now mean 1, or 60 (6x10), or 3600 (60x60), and so on. Its actual value was determined by its place." [emphasis added]

Surely it was similar in the Old Kingdom of the Pharaohs. 4 – 7 – 9.
[57] See Duncan J. Melville, Bibliography of Mesopotamian Mathematics and Duncan J. Melville, Sumerian metrological numeration systems.
[58] Duncan J. Melville, Sumerian metrological numeration systems.

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Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."