Friday, October 07, 2005

1 - The Cult of Horus and the Origins of Astronomy Nr. 1

1 - The Origin of the Cult of Horus in Predynastic Egypt

by Andis Kaulins [1][,2]

I. Introduction: The Extern Stones (Externsteine) and the
Falcon Stone (Falkenstein)

"Star Stones: Representations of Prehistoric Astronomy in the Extern Stones" was a paper I presented on May 6, 2005 in Horn/Bad Meinberg, Germany, near the location of the Extern Stones, to the 39th annual meeting of the Walther Machalett Study Group on Ancient History. That paper developed a hypothesis which I first published in the book Stars Stones and Scholars,[3] claiming that the Extern Stones had been worked by human hand in the Neolithic period (New Stone Age) and that the figures in relief on the stones represented the stars of the heavens, marking also the solstices and equinoxes in approximately 3000 B.C.

Others have seen faces carved in relief on the Extern Stones long before my recognition of them.[4] However, no one has known what meaning to attach to these sculptures. My interpretation of these reliefs showed that they were ancient "humanized" representations of stellar asterisms and constellations, which were seen as astronomical "gods" by the ancients.

I also interpreted the "Falcon Stone" (Falkenstein), Rock 11 of the Extern Stones, as depicting stars of the heavens. These stars were: 1) the stars of the constellation Draco, represented by a lizard, marking the pole of the ecliptic; and, 2) the stars Kochab and Pherkad of Ursa Minor as "guards of the heavens", marking the pole star as a falcon (the Egyptian "Horus").

It is interesting to observe that the figure of a lizard (or dragon, or crocodile) on the Falcon Stone (Rock 11, Extern Stones) had already been identified by Walther Machalett previous to my independent recognition of it. This circumstance of a match of independent observations by two persons (reproducibility, as it were) gave me the feeling that my identifications of the other figures on the Falcon Stone were also correct.

[go to posting #2 - page titles are automatically assigned by Blogger and DO NOT match this posting sequence, e.g. #2 is marked as page 7 in Blogger]
[1] J.D. (Doctor of Jurisprudence), Stanford University, USA; Former Lecturer, FFA, Anglo-American Law, University of Trier Law School, University of Trier.
[2] The author would like to thank Dr.jur. Gert Meier (Law, Government, History and Modern Languages, University of Göttingen; former NATO Scholar at Stanford University) for important contributions to the content of this manuscript.
[3] Andis Kaulins, Stars Stones and Scholars: The Decipherment of the Megaliths as an Ancient Survey of the Earth by Astronomy, Trafford Publishing, Canada, USA and Ireland, 2003.
[4] See Elisabeth Neumann-Gundrum, Europas Kultur der Groß-Skulpturen, Schmitz-Verlag, Giessen, 1981, and Walter Machalett, Die Externsteine, Hallonen-Verlag, Maschen, 1970.

Most Popular Posts of All Time

Sky Earth Native America

Sky Earth Native America 1:
American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
Volume 1, Edition 2, 266 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Sky Earth Native America 2:
    American Indian Rock Art Petroglyphs Pictographs
    Cave Paintings Earthworks & Mounds as Land Survey & Astronomy
    Volume 2, Edition 2, 262 pages, by Andis Kaulins.

  • Both volumes have the same cover except for the labels "Volume 1" viz. "Volume 2".
    The image on the cover was created using public domain space photos of Earth from NASA.


    Both book volumes contain the following basic book description:
    "Alice Cunningham Fletcher observed in her 1902 publication in the American Anthropologist
    that there is ample evidence that some ancient cultures in Native America, e.g. the Pawnee in Nebraska,
    geographically located their villages according to patterns seen in stars of the heavens.
    See Alice C. Fletcher, Star Cult Among the Pawnee--A Preliminary Report,
    American Anthropologist, 4, 730-736, 1902.
    Ralph N. Buckstaff wrote:
    "These Indians recognized the constellations as we do, also the important stars,
    drawing them according to their magnitude.
    The groups were placed with a great deal of thought and care and show long study.
    ... They were keen observers....
    The Pawnee Indians must have had a knowledge of astronomy comparable to that of the early white men."
    See Ralph N. Buckstaff, Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map,
    American Anthropologist, Vol. 29, Nr. 2, April-June 1927, pp. 279-285, 1927.
    In our book, we take these observations one level further
    and show that megalithic sites and petroglyphic rock carving and pictographic rock art in Native America,
    together with mounds and earthworks, were made to represent territorial geographic landmarks
    placed according to the stars of the sky using the ready map of the starry sky
    in the hermetic tradition, "as above, so below".
    That mirror image of the heavens on terrestrial land is the "Sky Earth" of Native America,
    whose "rock stars" are the real stars of the heavens, "immortalized" by rock art petroglyphs, pictographs,
    cave paintings, earthworks and mounds of various kinds (stone, earth, shells) on our Earth.
    These landmarks were placed systematically in North America, Central America (Meso-America) and South America
    and can to a large degree be reconstructed as the Sky Earth of Native America."

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